Law Review- PRIMARY & SECONDARY EDUCATION
Danielle N. Boaz, Equality Does Not Mean Conformity: Reevaluating the Use of Segregated Schools to Create a Culturally Appropriate Education for African American Children, 7 Conn. Pub. Int. LJ. 1 (2007). This article confronts the assumption that the most effective strategy for advancing minority education is school integration. It details the history of court-ordered desegregation and concludes that although these efforts intended to eliminate discrimination, they have not led to integrated schools. The author notes that there is a need for a new perspective that places emphasis on power and respect in minority communities. The author concludes that minorities should advocate for voluntary segregation which will result in improved schools.
Perry A. Zirkel and John H. Clark, School Negligence Case Law Trends, 32 S. 111. U. LJ. 345 (2008). This article analyzes negligence claims filed by students against public schools from 1990 to 2005. The authors note that the number of lawsuits filed against schools remained constant over this time period. Students prevailed on their claims in only about eleven percent of the analyzed cases, receiving an average award of $430,000. The authors also found that half of the successful student claims related to transit activity.
Pamela S. Karlan, The Law of Small Numbers: Gonzales v. Carhart, Parents Involved in Community Schools, and Some Themes From the First Full Term of the Roberts Court, 86 N.C. L. Rev. 1369 (2008). This article analyzes the first term of the Roberts Court in light of the decisions issued in Parents Involved in Community Schools v. Seattle School District No. 1 and Gonzales v. Carhart. The author notes that these cases illustrate the Justices' marked differences in worldview. The author further notes that the Court appears to be exhibiting a higher level of deference to Congress and the Executive as well as a departure from striking down laws as unconstitutional based solely on facial challenges. The author concludes with an analysis of the proper role of the Court as the protector of precedential decisions such as Brown v. Board of Education.
Martha McCarthy, Anti-Harassment Provisions Revisited: No Bright-Line Rule, 2008 BYU Educ. & LJ. 225 (2008). This article examines how various courts have applied Supreme Court decisions regarding the constitutionality of anti-harassment policies in a variety of contexts. The author notes that constraints on student expression that are discriminatorily applied will likely not survive judicial scrutiny. However, anti-harassment policies will likely be upheld where mere is evidence of racial conflict. The author further notes that it is difficult to predict how the judiciary will approach anti-harassment policies relating to sexual orientation.
William Y Chin, School Violence and Race: The Problem of Peer Racial Harassment against Asian Pacific American Students in Schools, 10 Scholar 333 (2008). This article examines specific instances of harassment of Asian Pacific Americans. The author notes that this harassment is often underreported and is often based on negative stereotypes. The author discusses several remedial measures that schools may adopt, including educator cultural competency training and anti-racial harassment policies. The author also discusses the role of the courts in the resolution of this issue.
Nicholas A. Schuneman, One Nation, Under . . . the Watchmaker?: Intelligent Design and the Establishment Clause, 22 BYU J. Pub. L. 179 (2007). This article examines whether Intelligent Design may be taught in public school without violating the proper relationship between religion and the states as defined by the Establishment Clause. Noting that the Supreme Court has hinted that contexts do exist that would allow the presentation of religious concepts in public school, the author analyzes the teaching of these concepts in different academic domains. The author concludes that the Intelligent Design hypothesis is a religious notion and the Establishment Clause likely prohibits its instruction in the domain of the hard sciences because it would risk state indoctrination, but it likely may be taught within the domains of the social sciences and humanities because these allow for the secular, objective study of religious ideas.
Dean Hill Rivkin, Legal Advocacy and Education Reform: Litigating School Exclusion, 75 Tenn. L. Rev. 265 (2008). This article reviews the various ways education institutions remove students from schools. Additionally, the pros and cons of using litigation, law school legal clinics, and the use of public interest firms to prevent school exclusion are discussed.
Joseph O. Oluwole & Preston C. Green, III, No Child Left Behind Act, Race, and Parents Involved, 5 Hastings Race & Poverty L. J. 271 (2008). This article analyzes whether race-targeted funding implemented to meet No Child Left Behind (NCLB) goals could survive an Equal Protection Clause challenge. With a stated goal of closing the achievement gap between minority and non-minority students, NCLB sanctions schools failing to make adequate yearly progress in narrowing the gap. The authors note that because NCLB has not reduced the racial achievement gap, states under pressure to meet its requirements and avoid loss of federal funding may implement racially targeted funding, which is likely to be challenged under the federal Equal Protection Clause. In light of the Supreme Court's recent decision involving race-conscious school assignment plans, the authors conclude that race-conscious funding under NCLB could survive an Equal Protection Clause challenge.
Lauren E. Winters, Colorblind Context: Redefining Race-Conscious Policies in Primary and Secondary Education, 86 Or. L. Rev. 679 (2007). This article examines the precedent that led to the Supreme Court's conclusion that race-conscious admissions policies in the context of higher education did not violate the Fourteenth Amendment Equal Protection Clause. The article identifies the ideological differences among the current Supreme Court Justices that led to tìieir justification of the exclusive use of race to eliminate racial isolation and segregation in primary and secondary schools. The author concludes that local governments can reduce racial isolation and segregation in public schools and avoid strict scrutiny by making school assignments based on socioeconomic status factors.
Natalie Gomez- Velez, Public School Governance and Democracy: Does Public Participation Matter?, 53 Vili. L. Rev. 297 (2008). This article examines the question of public participation in public school governance from the perspective of theories of democratic participation. This article explores New York City and other cities that have recently moved to centralized mayoral control of public schools and provides a brief overview of theories of democratic participation, each calling for different degrees of public involvement. The author concludes that in establishing public school governance structures, strong consideration should be given to hybrid governance models. Further, the structure should be consistent with principles of democratic education while addressing concerns about standards and accountability.
Brannon P. Denning and Molly C. Taylor, Morse v. Frederick and the Regulation of Student Cyberspeech, 35 Hastings Const. L.Q. 835 (2008). This article argues that, although technology has blurred the line between on-campus and off-campus speech, a line must be maintained. The authors propose that in difficult cases involving cyberspeech they would permit school jurisdiction if the student eiüier publicized the speech at school or encouraged others to access the speech at school, regardless of whether the speech was produced elsewhere, was disruptive, or was otherwise included within a category of speech the school was entitled to regulate.
Daria E. Neal, Healthy Schools: A Major Front in the Fight for Environmental Justice, 38 Envtl. L. 473 (2008). This article discusses the government's duty to address environmental dangers, which can substantially impact student health, inherent in some public schools. The author states that many public schools located in urban sectors are located in environmentally hazardous areas and are in desperate need of repairs and updates. The author proposes certain governmental remedies, including modifying local zoning and property tax laws.
Andrea Kayne Kaufman, What Would Harry Potter Say About "BONG HiTS 4 JESUS?" Morse v. Frederick and the Democratic Implications of Using In Loco Parentis to Subordinate Tinker and Curtail Student Speech, 32 OkIa. City U. L. Rev. 461 (2007). This article draws interesting comparisons between competing philosophies featured in the Supreme Court's 2007 Morse v. Frederick decision (the "BONG HiTS 4 JESUS" case) and the novel Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix; a battle between the interests of protection and the interests of preparation. The author takes the position of Justice Stevens' dissent, which stresses the vitality of unrestricted free speech as a tool to prepare young people to engage in a democratic society.
Martha M. McCarthy & Suzanne E. Eckes, Silence in the Hallways: The Impact of Garcetti v. Ceballos on Public School Educators, 17 B. U. Pub. Int. L.J. 209 (2008). This article criticizes the 2006 Supreme Court decision Garcetti v. Ceballos, arguing that its impact on the free speech rights of educators and other public employees is not in the public's best interests. The authors contend that educators and school administrators are losing First Amendment lawsuits in which they allege to have been fired in retaliation for expressing legitimate concerns regarding a jobrelated issue that could impact the public interest. The authors urge statutory change at the federal level, believing that protection offered by state whistleblower laws is inadequate.
Jeanne M. Powers & Lirio Patton, Between Mendez and Brown: Gonzales v. Sheely (1951) and the Legal Campaign against Segregation, 33 Law & Soc. Inquiry 127 (2008). This article discusses how the effects of racism and social outcry in response to racism impacted the decisions in Gonzales v. Sheely (1951), Méndez v. Westminster (1946) and Delgado v. Bastrop (1948). All three of these cases involved the school segregation policy of separating MexicanAmerican and white students in the Southwest. The author argues that the evolution of the legal arguments in these cases highlight how new socio-cultural ideas about race and ethnicity began to be fused into civil rights law leading to the eventual eradication of de jure segregation in public schools in Brown.
Notes & Comments
Preparing Students for Democratic Participation: Why Teacher Curricular Speech Should Sometimes Be Protected by the First Amendment, 73 Mo. L. Rev. 213 (2008). This note examines disagreement among courts regarding whether and to what extent teachers' classroom speech should be protected under the First Amendment of the United States Constitution. The author argues that protection of teachers' classroom speech is necessary to better foster the responsible, democratic participation of students.
School Bullying in Connecticut: Can the Statehouse and the Courthouse Fix the Schoolhouse? An Analysis of Connecticut's Anti-Bullying Statute, 7 Conn. Pub. Int. L.J. 105 (2007). This note contends that Connecticut's current anti-bullying law is vague and ineffective. The author further argues that legislation currently in force tackles only repeated, overt acts and that remedies need to be made available to victims of bullying in K- 12 schools. The author concludes that new legislative efforts should address covert bullying, provide adequate preventative measures, and allow victims easy access to the court system.
Removing the Taint: The Battle for Intelligent Design in the Classroom, 32 S. 111. U. L.J. 425 (2008). This comment notes that, to date, courts have found that teaching intelligent design in public schools is an impermissible attempt to provide religious instruction. The author reviews court decisions overturning legislation with a creationist slant. The author concludes that if intelligent design is to be included in public school curricula, its proponents must develop and support a true secular purpose for doing so.
It's Political, You Can 't Be Offended! A Discussion of the Student Speech Analysis in Guise Ex ReI. Guiles v. Marineau, 461 F.3D 320 (2D Cir. 2006), 32 S. 111. U. L.J. 469 (2008). This note reviews the leading cases addressing school regulation of student speech. The author contends that the prohibition against offensive speech may collide with permitting political speech, when speech is both political and offensive. The author argues that courts may resolve this conflict by assessing whether the speech is school-sponsored, plainly offensive, and disruptive. The author concludes that non-offensive and non-disruptive school speech is permissible if it is not school-sponsored.
Bonghits4jesus.com? Scrutinizing Public School Authority over Student Cyberspeech through the Lens of Personal Jurisdiction, 92 Minn. L. Rev. 1206 (2008). This note addresses the degree to which school administrators can regulate student speech on internet social networking sites. The author argues that student cyberspeech is not truly within the schoolhouse gates. As a result, courts may not be able to uphold restrictions placed on such speech. The author presents a framework that courts can implement in assessing whether or not student cyberspeech may be prohibited.
Dog-Sniff Searches in Massachusetts Public Schools: How Close is too Close?, 13 Suffolk J. Trial & App. Advoc. 169 (2008). This note addresses the controversy over employing dogs to search for drugs in schools, particularly in Massachusetts. The author argues that Massachusetts should restrict school dog-sniff searches unless there is a good reason for conducting the search, and that courts should make the determination of what constitutes a good reason.
"Appropriate Action, " Inappropriately Defined: Amending the Equal Educational Opportunities Act of 1974, 65 Wash. & Lee L. Rev. 639 (2008). This note advocates a change in the language of the Equal Educational Opportunities Act (EEOA) that explicitly incorporates five different categories under which to bring a claim. The author argues that the current language is too vague to protect the rights of limited English proficient students and fails to meet the Act's original purpose. The author further argues that the current test used to determine an EEOA violation, developed by the United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit, does not sufficiently define whether a school has achieved the "appropriate action" the Supreme Court has determined is necessary to avoid a violation of the EEOA. Additionally, the test does not allow one to bring a challenge until a case is litigated.
The Intersection of 42 U.S.C. § 1983 and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, 76 Fordham L. Rev. 3065 (2008). This note analyzes whether a claim brought under 42 U.S.C. § 1983, which provides money damages for a deprivation of rights under the United States Constitution and U.S. laws, may be a means for a claimant to also assert a claim under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). The author examines the split among the United States Courts of Appeals on this issue, and notes that the amendment to § 1415 of the IDEA effectively overturns the Supreme Court's assertion that there is no remedy for an IDEA claim beyond the IDEA statute itself. The author argues that the legislative history of the amendment to § 1415 of the IDEA illustrates specific Congressional intent that IDEA violations be addressed through § 1983. The author further notes that the availability of money damages under §1983 may compel adherence to the IDEA statute.
Modified Assessments and No Child Left Behind: Beneficial to Students with Disabilities But Potential Problems in Implementation, 11 J. Gender Race & Just. 513 (2008). This note analyzes the ability of states to formulate modified assessments in accordance with the requirements of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB). The author assesses the potential incongruence between a modified assessment applied through NCLB testing and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act and other statutes. The author also analyzes various psychometric issues pertaining to the measurement of whether modified assessments are in accordance with NCLB standards.
Must Utah Imprison its Parents and Children?: Alternatives to Utah's Compulsory Attendance Laws, 22 BYU J. Pub. L. 229 (2007). This note discusses Utah's trend to limit juvenile and parental rights via juvenile truancy legislation. To compel attendance in public schools, the Utah legislature recently passed an amended statute which authorizes charging the truant's parents with a Class B Misdemeanor, punishable by imprisonment for up to six months. The author proposes parent-teen mediation, parent centers in public schools, and counseling as legal and equitable alternatives to imprisonment of the truant child and imprisonment of their parent.
The Family Educational Rights & Privacy Act of 1974: Recommendations for Realigning Educational Privacy with Congress ' Original Intent, 41 Creighton L. Rev. 277 (2008). This note reviews the creation of the Family Educational Rights & Privacy Act of 1974 (FERPA), amendments to the Act, and judicial decisions that support and counter Congress's intent to protect individual privacy. The author suggests that in order for Congress' original intent to be manifested consistently, Congress should amend FERPA's definition of education records and include language that explicitly announces that parents and students have the right to sue educational institutions for FERPA violations.
Is a Free Appropriate Public Education Really Free? How the Denial of Expert Witness Fees Will Adversely Impact Children with Autism, 45 S.D. L. Rev. 251 (2008). This comment assesses the impact of the 2006 United States Supreme Court decision that prevailing parents in an Individual with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) challenge may not recover expert witness costs. The author argues that the Arlington Central School District Board of Education v. Murphy decision marks the Supreme Court's departure from securing a free appropriate public education for a child with disabilities and will keep low-income parents, who require but cannot afford an expert, from challenging a school district's decision. The author proposes that Congress should amend IDEA to expressly state that prevailing parents can recover expert witness fees.
Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights and the Right to Education in American Jurisprudence: Barriers and Approaches to Implementation, 19 Hastings Women's LJ. 303 (2008). This note explores the reasons the International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural (ESC) Rights has not been ratified in the United States, comparable rights already recognized in the United States, and ways the unrecognized rights may become supported through the United States judiciary. Proposals for recognition include upholding citations to international law supporting the Covenant; finding ESC rights to be an essential component of political and civil rights, which are explicitly protected under United States law; and considering certain ESC rights as fundamental rights under equal protection jurisprudence.
Do Federal Courts Really Want Parents Involved? Using No Child Left Behind to Fight Potential Re-Segregation, 20 Nat'l Black L.J. 163 (2007). This comment discusses what remedies are available to parents if re- segregation occurs as a result of the court's decision in Parents Involved. In addition, the author proposes that one solution may come by way of No Child Left Behind (NCLB), which has a school choice provision that allows parents to transfer their children to better performing schools. The author concludes that a parent's "right to choose" which school a child attends is not only mandated by NCLB' s choice provisions, but also has deeper fundamental roots in American jurisprudence and should be recognized and protected by the Supreme Court.
Sex-Offender Parents: Megan's Law and Schools' Legal Options in Protecting Students Within Their Walls, 17 Widener LJ. 1031 (2008). This comment analyzes the novel issue of how schools have and should handle a sex offender who is the parent of a school-aged child. This comment investigates various school responses and policies in addressing the handling of sex-offender parents, while considering possible constitutional issues which may arise in enforcing these policies. The author demonstrates the on-going attempt of state legislatures to address the various situations which are not yet covered by Megan's Law legislation and offers suggestions regarding how school districts should proceed in handling this complex situation.
Breaking the Norm: Accurate Evaluation of English Language Learners with Special Education Needs, 17 B.U. Pub. Int. LJ. 289 (2008). This note demonstrates that the use of traditional assessment methods is inappropriate and ineffective for assessing the special education needs of English Language Learners (ELLs) and, thus, denies ELLs the opportunity for equal education. This note identifies the problems with traditional assessment methods which result in disproportionate representation of ELLs in special education, specifically addressing unreliability and bias in objective testing methods. The author introduces a culturally sensitive model for identifying ELLs with disabilities.
The Indian Boarding School Era and its Continuing Impact on Tribal Families and the Provision of Government Services, 43 Tulsa L. Rev. 149 (2007). This comment details the history of the boarding school era, focusing on the impact the removal of American Indian children from their homes had on American Indian culture. The comment explores the effect this impact is having on modern government's ability to effectively provide services to American Indians, with a specific focus on child placement services and welfare programs. The author addresses both legislative and governmental remedies by paying close attention to the provision of welfare services through Tribal Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF).
Where Have all the Lovings Gone?: The Continuing Relevance of the Movement for a Multiracial Category and Racial Classification after Parents Involved in Community Schools v. Seattle School District No. 1, 11 J. Gender Race & Just. 409 (2008). This comment discusses contemporary race construction and its effects on the public school system. The author argues that the current system of determining race is flawed because of the lack of a multiracial category in the 2000 Census and in public school documentation. The author contends that failing to determine the multiracial make-up of a community and its school system might lead to the stripping of legal standing for multi-racial people in discrimination suits, and might further stymie the movement against racial inequality in schools.
A Case for Strengthening School District Jurisdiction to Punish OffCampus Incidents of Cyberbulling, 40 Ariz. St. LJ. 257 (2008). This comment analyzes the need for the legal system to expand school district authority to punish cyberbullying incidents. The author argues school administrators are currently constrained by the First Amendment to efficiently monitor and regulate the growing problem of cyberbullying. The comment proposes that when cyberbullying incidents begin off-campus and fail to rise to the level of civil or criminal liability, but directly affect someone associated with the school environment, courts should give deference to the school districts to punish such speech.
Morality and Public School Speech: Balancing the Rights of Students, Parents, and Communities, 2008 B.Y.U. L. Rev. 593 (2008). This comment examines the parent's right to challenge curriculum decisions in their child's public school. The author argues that public schools should be free to incorporate values into their curricula, so long as they respect certain provisions of the Constitution, e.g., the Establishment and Free Speech Clauses of the First Amendment. The author contends that the court system is an improper body to adjudicate what is taught in public schools absent a constitutional violation, and that the court should defer to a local entity representing the educational interests of the community, like a school board.
Peer Harassment in our Schools: Should Teachers and Administrators Join the Fight?, 10 Barry L. Rev. 155 (2008). This note examines the magnitude and effects of peer harassment and bullying in today's schools. The author also discusses the limited legal remedies available to victims of such abuse. The author calls on state lawmakers to pass stricter legislation in regard to bullying. The note also urges school administrators to implement more stringent policies that stress and require parent involvement.
ESL and Bilingual Education as a Proxy for Racial and Ethnic Segregation in U.S. Public Schools, 11 J. Gender Race & Just. 599 (2008). This note focuses on the problem of English-proficient Latino students being placed in English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) or bilingual classrooms. The note also focuses on a particular Texas case regarding the issue, in which equal protection and Civil Rights Act violations were alleged. The author argues that some schools' practice of placing Latino (and specifically not white) students in ESL/bilingual classrooms when general education classes overflow has a segregative effect and affords inherently unequal educational opportunities to these students.
The "War on Education": The Negative Impact of the No Child Left Behind Act on Inner-City Public Schools, Students, and Teachers, 11 J. Gender Race & Just. 573 (2008). This note puts forth several criticisms of the No Child Left Behind Act. While conceding that the Act's goals are laudable, the author argues that the strategies are akin to the ill-fated "War on Drugs" of the 1980's. The author urges the government to channel the Act's funds into other areas: efforts to decrease class sizes, improving technology use in the classroom, and better salaries for teachers.
Harassment and Hostility: Determining the Proper Standard of Liability for Discriminatory Peer-to-Peer Harassment of Youth in Schools, 29 Women's Rts. L. Rep. 117 (2008). This note looks at the problem of sexual harassment toward lesbian/gay/bisexual/transgender (LGBT) students in public schools and the various legal remedies that have been pursued against school districts. The author argues that suits arising under state anti-discrimination laws should require a lesser threshold than deliberate indifference. He recommends a standard similar to that used in workplace harassment suits in which liability arises when administrators knew or should have known of the discriminatory harassment and failed to take reasonable action to stop it.
Return to Sender: Off-Campus Student Speech Brought On-Campus by Another Student, 82 St. John's L. Rev. 1087 (2008). This note analyzes the inconsistent approaches of four courts dealing with cases in which student speech occurs off the school grounds in a private setting but is then brought onto campus by another student without the speaker's knowledge or permission and, subsequently, the speaker is disciplined by the school. The author recommends uniformity around a standard similar to that used in cases of public employee speech.
Paul Steven Miller, Ruth Colker, the Disability Pendulum: The First Decade of the Americans with Disabilities Act, 57 J. Legal Educ. 619 (2007). This review summarizes the views of the book's author who attempts to present a snapshot of the first 10 years of litigation concerning the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). The author argues that the 'pendulum' has been shifting toward the defendant's side over the last couple of years and away from Congress' original intent of providing protection to the disabled. The review praises the author for giving a detailed and thorough account of such litigation but laments that the book fails to give any opinion regarding the future of disability law reform.
Arizona State Board for Charter Schools v. U.S. Department of Education, 464 F3d 1003 (2006). 79 U. Colo. L. Rev. 617 (2008). (Special Needs Accommodation by For-Profit Charter Schools).
Morse v. Frederick, 127 S. Ct. 2618 (2007). 41 Creighton L. Rev. 481 (2008). (First Amendment Student Free Speech Claim).
Parents Involved in Cmty. Sch. v. Seattle Sch. Dist. No. 1, 127 S. Ct. 2738 (2007). 24 Harv. BlackLetter LJ. 133 (2008); 43 Harv. CR.- CL. L. Rev. 491 (2008). (Constitutionality of Student Assignment Plans).
Educational Choice: Emerging Legal and Policy Issues. 2008 BYU L. Rev. 227 - 592 (2008). David M. Kirkham, Introduction to Symposium: Educational Choice: Emerging Legal Policy Issues; William W. Basse«, Changing Perceptions of Private Religious Schools: Public Money and Public Trust in the Education of Children; Douglas Laycock, Why the Supreme Court Changed Its Mind About Government Aid to Religious Institutions: It's a Lot More Than Just Republican Appointments; Steven K. Green, The Insignificance of the Blaine Amendment; Clint Bolick, The Constitutional Parameters of School Choice; Scott Ellis Ferrin and Pamela R. Hallam, State Constitutionality and Adequacy: Signposts of Concern on Utah's Path Toward Developing Vouchers; Daniel E. Witte and Paul T Mero, Removing Classrooms From the Battlefield: Liberty, Paternalism, and the Redemptive Promise of Educational Choice; Patrick J. Wolf, School Voucher Programs: What the Research Says About Parental School Choice; Christopher Lubienski and Peter Weitzel, The Effects of Vouchers and Private Schools in Improving Academic Achievement: A Critique of Advocacy Research; David E. Campbell, The Civic Side of School Choice: An Empirical Analysis of Civic Education in Public and Private Schools; Paul Finkleman, School Vouchers, Thomas Jefferson, Roger Williams, and Protecting the Faithful: Warnings From the Eighteenth Century and Seventeenth Century on the Danger of Establishments to Religious Communities; Terry M. Moe, Beyond the Free Market: The Structure of School Choice.
Community, Diversity, and Equal Protection: The Louisville and Seattle School Cases. 112 Penn St. L. Rev. 937 - 1069 (2008). Robert M. Ackerman, Introduction; Enid Trucios-Haynes and Cedric Merlin Powell, The Rhetoric of Colorblind Constitutionalism: Individualism, Race and Public Schools in Louisville, Kentucky; Aderson Bellegarde Francois, Only Connect: The Right to Community and the Individual Liberty Interest in State-Sponsored Racial Integration; Michael L. Wells, Race-conscious Student Assignment Plans After Parents Involved: Bringing State Action Principles to Bear on the De Jure/De Facto Distinction; Paul Van Seters, To Create an Integrated Society. See Also Race and Education (Symposium). 6 Seattle J. for Soc. Just 527 726 (2008).…
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Publication information: Article title: Law Review- PRIMARY & SECONDARY EDUCATION. Contributors: Not available. Journal title: Journal of Law and Education. Volume: 38. Issue: 1 Publication date: January 2009. Page number: 179+. © Jefferson Law Book Company Jan 2009. Provided by ProQuest LLC. All Rights Reserved.
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