The Role of University Education in Enabling Free Access to Information
Vranes, Aleksandra, Journal of Education for Library and Information Science
The course on free access to information presented here is defined primarily for library education programs in the countries where academic institutions are understaffed and short of academic, technical and logistic support. Emphasizes the magnitude of the university as a place for unhampered exchange of ideas and inviolable pursuit of truth. Explores the conceptual framework and the historical dimension of freedom of access to information. Goes on to discuss the concept of tolerance and the way it relates to the mission of libraries and librarians' professional practice. Examines the responsibility and role of libraries in developing and safeguarding free access to information in a mix of formats in various societal contexts. Considers the purpose, content, academic level and structure of courses on free access to information in schools of library and information science. Outlines modules covering such principal aspects as legislative and regulatory frameworks, the ethics of the information society, censorship and intellectual freedom. Also presented are examples of topics to be discussed by students in conducting case studies in classroom contexts.
For decades theorists and scholars have been trying to answer the question whether there is such a thing as library responsibility, and two approaches have been polarized in answering it. In the answers provided, social responsibility is often identified with the presence of libraries in political life and with their invaluable role in censoring the freedom of reading. Or the library is seen as an educational, cultural and spiritual center, utterly apart from any type of extreme commitment. Thus, the library has been socially accepted in extremes: most frequently as a silkworm's placid cocoon, but also as an undesirable caterpillar slowly but resolutely nibbling at the tissue of the political leaf. Following different social and technological changes on the one hand and intellectual freedom and library tolerance on the other has its full justification. Freedom of access to information is conditioned by both categories mentioned. If it is always limited by a form of censorship, protected by the accepted professional ethical codes and elementary premises of intellectual property, to what extent is it possible to talk about freedom? Is freedom of access to information defended or limited by constructing social responsibility? Is it so that the process of educating academie citizens in general along with the preparation of future librarians help systematically form the consciousness of intellectual freedom as well as the awareness of access to information?
The university as the home of free ideas and as a community of lecturers and students associated in the process of searching for the truth, as Karl Jaspers saw it, nowadays has to dedicate itself to adopting the principles of democratic tolerance and intellectual freedom.1 Tolerance, which we appeal to increasingly in mutual contacts among people, parties, or states and nations, can perhaps be best exhibited and brought closer in libraries. A tolerant relation to diverse media and their contents facilitates one's development into an individual capable of partaking in an open dialogue, which can be initiated only if the level of information and education is adequately high. "Nowadays, the traditional somewhat inflexible scheme of roles characterizing basic figures in the field of library practice (librarian-reader) has undergone some change. The transformation in progress has grown from the relations between people who used to be distant to each other due to ideological dogmas and bureaucratic norms and who were compelled to promote and order materials within some prescribed circle of resources. But these people now have bright prospects of turning into like-minded persons and coauthors equally necessary to one another."2
Education is the most important and the longest-lasting segment of social life while at the same time being the most difficult sector to influence without being directed by the official institutional policy. This is the case when national policy towards educational institutions is exerted in a country where the problem is the existence of a directed policy in the field. If education is continuously oriented towards arousing the learners' consciousness - from the earliest stage - about the freedom of thinking and of speech, privacy protection and multiculturalism, the prospects are there for developing free-minded readers or custodians and promoters of the written word slowly, but in a stable and reliable way. "This not only entails providing accurate and complete information to every inquirer, it also requires that each library user be treated in an ethical and professional manner."3
To achieve that objective in the context of library and information science (LIS) programs offered at the university level, it is necessary to define a course with a syllabus that aims to:
* develop consciousness of the need for freedom of access to information;
* develop social responsibility;
* include libraries and librarians in the struggle for attaining intellectual freedom in society;
* facilitate an understanding of ethical and legal issues in the process of information distribution;
* facilitate an understanding of the role of personal ethics and ethical fundamentals from the perspective of the library;
* facilitate an understanding of the interrelatedness between personal and professional ethics and knowledge about the purpose of users' research in the library;
* define the library and its role with regard to the definition of individual and collective freedom;
* provide a discussion of free access to information as the basic characteristic of the modern library and postulates of personal and social freedom.
Librarians' education should follow the eight values which, in Michael Gorman's words, offer the basic support to library activity: stewardship, service, intellectual freedom, rationalism, literacy and learning, equity of access, privacy and democracy. Freedom of access to information is the source and end of each of them.4 Librarians should be offered basic principles and historical knowledge during their regular under- and postgraduate studies.
Hence, in this specific area, the LIS educational system should provide three delivery formats: ( 1 ) incorporating the principles of intellectual freedom into all available courses through familiar examples derived from the national heritage; (2) a stand-alone course offered within university level librarianship programs; and (3) seminars and panels organized in libraries. In library science, more than in other branches of the humanities, teaching practice has always contained, and especially nowadays: "the cognitive and teaching-professional parts. The former constructs theoretical knowledge, and the latter forms professional skills and habits on the basis of acquired knowledge."5
Introducing a free access to information course is a belated answer to the problems which have accrued in library practice for centuries. Inherent in free access to information, as an LIS curricular theme, are all the advantages and disadvantages of its predecessors in the library field along with the demands of the present societal environment. Thus, it is quite understandable that the aforementioned course will be closely related to other courses in the LIS syllabus and it should be clear from the course outline how the course interacts with other LIS subjects in the curriculum. See Figure 1. Because of the interdisciplinary relations, organization of students' discussion panels under the auspices of several teachers seems obvious. The matters of ethics in library life are not related to individual cases and since they have a general character and can be connected with all procedures and investigations, these matters should be approached principally and fundamentally.
At the same time, because of its interdisciplinary scope and profile, this novel course could represent a welcome addition to the mix of general and elective courses available to students, for example, in the faculties of philosophy and philology which are the institutional umbrella of library science studies at many European universities.
The course on free access to information lasting for two terms and with an appropriate workload of lectures (2 per week) and exercises (2 per week- for example, through seminal papers, readings, discussion groups) will cover four main topics entitled: Legal Regulation as Fundamental to the Information Society; Ethics of the Information Society; Intellectual Freedom and Censorship and Intellectual Property. The coverage is broad and would in principle comprise all current issues facing the modern librarian and the reader, i.e. user. A dedicated and critical insight into the problems which the above mentioned modules enfold can be viewed as a vital contribution to developing a fair, free-minded and tolerant librarian, whose work is at the heart of the shaping of a democratic and legally regulated society.
The course delineated in Figure 3 should be obligatory for all LIS stu- dents. At the same time, because of its general scope, the course should be made available as an option to other university students, not only to those studying library science. Teaching should take the following forms: lec- tures, exercises, consulting, discussion panels, analysis of legal and other materials available in printed form and electronically (legal regulations, in- ternational recommendations, press clippings, library reports and informa- tion), organizing all-student polls in the faculty, case studies as a prompt for group discussion and drawing conclusions regarding the questions pro- voked by the case studies, team-teaching involving library staff members as well, encouraging online discussions on given topics, developing dis- cussion panels, paying visits to the libraries and conducting workshops and group projects. Every lecture should begin with evoking students' un- demonstrated knowledge in order to achieve their confidence and inde- pendence in reaching conclusions. After teaching for a lesson or two, questions should be put to which the so-called "one-minute" answer is ex- pected: What was the most important information you gained during the discussion/lecture? What aspect or approach was left unexplained? That kind of methodological break is also instrumental in directing the discus- sion towards the questions that were not analyzed thoroughly. Case studies will be of special value in the following contexts: designing interviews in the library which do not endanger the user's privacy, but contain questions adapted to match the user's situation and request; the analysis of a situation in which the user is looking for a publication or a piece of information, which according to the universal ethical and social norms set against the user's physical or spiritual status may contribute to the user's or commu- nity's jeopardy; the analysis of possible consequences if the requested information is issued, or not; the librarian's responsibility towards society if he or she thinks that the informational material checked out from the library may cause undesired consequences; comparative analysis of the users' requests for documents from the angle of users' status, needs and purpose and the librarian's dependence on these parameters in a historical perspective as well as in modern times; the role of copyright in offering reference services, for example by photocopying.
The course is conceived primarily for library educational programs offered by LIS departments coping with a shortage of personnel and requisite financial or logistic support. In many countries, however, LIS courses addressing the problem areas of free access to information would typically be offered as self-contained courses, but here the free access theme is presented in the form of modules.
MODULE 1 : Legal Regulation as Fundamental to the Information Society
Since the regulatory and legislative frameworks constituts the initial segment of the course covering freedom of access to information, we should first aim to define the following issues and themes: the meaning of the concept of information society and the role of libraries in the information society; the role of formal education and librarians' associations in developing freedom of access to information and the role of legal and statutory regulations along with international and local standards in achieving equal freedom of access to information. Equal access to information should be analyzed with regard to: economic and political conditions that constitute barriers of access (widespread membership fees in the developing countries, lack of technical equipment); individual physical and mental characteristics: users' age, gender, ethnicity and special intellectual or physical needs.
Content of the Lectures
Libraries, bound as they necessarily are to acts, standards, principles, recommendations, regulations and board decisions on book supply do apparently not allow tolerance. Instead, they tend to adhere to the consistent application of certain principles in their own internal activities and organization. But at the same time, they appeal to tolerance of diverse kinds of book content and distribution of various types of information being aware of the fact that information is simultaneously both the basis of power and a vehicle of democracy. Therefore, the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) as a global professional organization of library associations together with the IFLA Committee on Free Access to Information and Freedom of Expression (IFLA/CAIFE), as its special committee, work to develop librarians' consciousness of their social responsibility. Drawn upon in this sustained effort are general recommendations for effecting legal regulation in certain areas ranging from the Glasgow Declaration on Libraries, Information Services and Intellectual Freedom (August 2002), over the UNESCO Public Library Manifesto, the IFLA Internet Manifesto (May 2002) to the Alexandria Manifesto (November 2005). In our part of the world, we have always recognized the library as a cultural, formative, educational and scientific center. Today, it is growing into an information center as well, entrusted with the vital role of, among other things, "building and preserving democracy by allowing the public to think and to criticize freely, to seek hidden information and to find out what their governments would prefer they not know."6 The need to promote multiculturalism and oppose any ideologically, economically, politically, religiously, nationally directed limitation of access to information provided the basis for adopting the IFLA/CAIFE Committee Report at the 1997 IFLA Council and General Conference in Copenhagen.7 The report stipulates thorough and organized action in terms of protecting intellectual property, which also involves the freedom of informing and defines the protection mechanisms, e.g. assisting librarians, libraries and library associations, using diplomatic channels for assistance to the libraries, introducing the national institutions and organizations to the aforesaid resolution and other relevant documents. Some impact of the CAIFE report on national governmental institutions and policies is expected. However, in discussing and defining the problem of protecting intellectual and informational freedom, the report does not consider education as falling within CAIFE's basic sphere of activity; instead, the focus is on governmental and nongovernmental associations and institutions.
The Aim of the Module
The Legal Regulation as Fundamental to the Information Society course would acquaint students with the basic legal and decree-level regulations including the legal instruments of the European Union, for example. These comprise: access to public information, protection of personal information and intellectual property in the information society, creating electronic government, introducing new technologies to all spheres of social life, globalization processes in the new world information order, and harmonizing national with global solutions.
MODULE 2: The Ethics of the Information Society
Intellectual freedom and its ethical aspects are the subject of ethical codes adopted in the library field in numerous countries in the world, and knowledge accumulated in this area has been presented in a multi-authored volume on the ethics of librarianship edited by Robert Vaughan.8 Vaughan is convinced that reflections on and extensions of this topic can be viewed as a reaffirmation of library science's traditional values. Hence, ethics in library science is developing side by side with "info ethics" and "cyber ethics" and together with these emerging disciplines a contribution has been made to the systematic solutions in this area brought about by UNESCO. The end-product is a global ethical code. Many national library associations have already passed their own ethical codes, most often in the fashion of the Hippocratic oath, starting from Canada, which did that way back in 1966, then Costa Rica (1974), Thailand (1977), Japan (1980), Great Britain (1983), Finland (1989), Sweden (1997), Russia, Lithuania and Yugoslavia (1999), all the way to Estonia (2001). It is interesting to note that many library associations had been established as many as one hundred years before they passed their ethical codes. In classroom contexts, students' oral presentations, developed with guidance from professors, and examining selected ethic codes should lead to the conclusion: whereas some of the codes are of a general nature, other ones lay down and concretize the principles for librarians' professional conduct and how they should act professionally towards the institution and towards the users.
Question for Discussion
The twenty-first century has also let a dilemma loose: are ethical codes necessary or superseded social documents? A possible explanation could be that of George Goodall, who concludes that an ethical code rests on three principles: "Internal consistency, external significance, and - based on a library science example - face validity."9 Taking the examples from current ethical codes and practice, Goodall concludes that these documents are incompatible with practice, due to their linguistic conservatism, and also due to the fact that life as delineated by the professional associations and conveyed to their members is far broader than the code itself. Hence, the paradox is that the activity of librarians themselves is sometimes intentionally censorial. The following questions can be raised in the discussion: librarians' advancement and discretion of and respect for the users' privacy; professional independence and intellectual freedom; integrity and inviolability of the librarian profession; financial ethics and members' integrity.
The Aim of Module 2
In the preservation and promotion of the book's autochthony, cultural diversity, tolerance and intellectual freedom, it is important to emphasize the above-mentioned tradition. However, this tradition, which represents the efforts to define an ethical code, can be contrasted with the modern marketing commitment on the part of libraries. Clearly, libraries have to be aware of marketing since their position and role in society will be less prominent and recognized if they are not paying sufficient attention to marketing. Libraries are active players in social changes and the processes of transition and democratizing the society do not take place in isolation from them. Libraries not only participate in the transformational processes and guide them, but they also store them as part of the collective memory. Departments of LIS and higher education libraries have accepted the tasks of developing scientific thought and adding to the training of young scientists as a responsibility pertaining to academe and therefore they have to discuss the ethics of the information society in regular classes or in open panels.
MODULE 3: Intellectual Freedom and Censorship
Intellectual freedom has been most frequently defined as the freedom of the press and the other media, the freedom of receiving and transmitting information and knowledge, the freedom of artistic expression, academic freedom and the freedom of scientific research. The United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which all ethical codes rely upon, the IFLA Internet Manifesto included, supports the freedom of thinking and expression through all the media.10 Libraries as scientific, cultural and educational institutions, responsible to the society and to the individual, should favor the process of democratization, publicity and transparency of operation. They should seek to widen access to cover information resources that are not readily accessible thereby enabling their users to read both the traditional and the electronic resources. Further they should strive to make their services available to all citizens while making use of their right to organize independent information systems and services for physically or mentally challenged persons. At the same time, libraries should be aware of the fact that intellectual freedom may lead to the expression of racist, sexist, nationalist, politically extreme and peace-endangering ideas. Such ideas jeopardize social and personal stability, because of which it is necessary to develop a system for protecting the persons who are availing themselves of the right to access information irrespective of the nature ofthat information. Didactically justified, socially useful, ethically disputable.
Restricted access to information by individuals, groups of citizens or by the state has been identified, according to the IFLA Internet Manifesto, as in opposition to the originality, individuality and critical quality of the opinions, on the national, local and commercial levels." The more secure the censorship is in society, the more ways of overpowering it will provoke. Based on relevant information-specific legislation, courses should be provided that teach students and other course attendees about their fundamental rights related to personal information protection and intellectual rights as regards Web-based materials, use of electronic documents and signatures as well as domain name protection.
Topics for Discussion
a) "Open" versus "free" access - is censorship hidden in these terms? Further, is censorship taking place in everyday libraries in disguise of something that we consider modern and progressive with the risk that we turned the tables along the way and went far away from the initial noble intentions? Slava Grigoryevna Mattina, perhaps to some extent laden with the political legacy of her own country, explains that censorship lies in the concept "open" as opposed to "free" access to the library holdings. "May we remind ourselves," says Mattina, "that we substitute the term 'free access' with the tautological 'open access'. Freedom, as we all know, implies personal responsibility both on the part of the librarians and the readers. The former - for creating the optimum conditions for reading choice, securing its real accessibility and comfort, the latter - to use the created conditions, and mutually - for the holdings preservation. Depersonalization automatically abolished this kind of responsibility."12
b) Students' teamwork in this area should be directed towards discussing and suggesting responses to the issues raised on informational contents which, in the opinion of an individual or a collective, can be controversial and unacceptable for distribution. Every student team should, by way of an introductory presentation and panels, try to illuminate one of the possible forms of censorship, the librarian's relations towards users of such evaluated contents along with the relevance of that kind of evaluation. Still the basic premise is that, through their services, libraries should maintain freedom of expression and not succumb to the ideological demands of the time, regardless of however tenaciously the macro-social context and those in power define the place and role of the library.
The discussion related to the question if there is a justification of narrowing the freedom of information usage does not have a final solution and it is conditioned by family and state traditions, national and religious legacies, historical roots, geographical environment, economic moment and technological development. Therefore we need a free discussion on possible censorship and courses covering these principal issues at any level of education and, mostly, within the realm of higher education.
The seminar or the series of lectures on the above topics may be rounded off with a text which should include provocative questions. Given that the purpose is to assess students' independent thinking, these questions need not be examined in the preceding seminar presentations or in the lectures.
MODULE 4: Intellectual Property
Content of the Module 4
Intellectual property and intellectual freedom have a decisive role in the media structure, in the national economy and political life and in achieving cultural prosperity. The two fundamental concepts are related as much to the right of making an intellectual effort in creating a work as to the right to making use of the products of intellectual work. The freedom of receiving and utilizing information is subject to a certain ethical code and is largely dependent on cultural diversity and different national legacies, so a special module in this field should draw upon illustrative material that includes local examples.
Topics for Discussion
a) Copyright and plagiarism (case study)
Correct conduct towards the author's work is an obligation of the reader and of the librarian alike, although the intellectual honesty issue is more acute today than it used to be in previous centuries. Technological advancement has conditioned the easiness of using current and innovative texts, but it has also confronted a scholar and student with a huge challenge embodied in taking entire portions of texts without acknowledging the sources. That is why "copyright" has been turned into "copy-paste" as it is referred to in many jokes, and personal and social morality has been seriously brought into question as evidenced by numerous court trials. Thus, plagiarism has become part of our everyday life. It is educationally counterproductive, but to be expected in a climate of intensive knowledge production and the increasing requirements for researchers to be highly productive and to provide current evidence of a large-scale publishing activity.
It is an open question whether the librarian has the obligation, or perhaps the right - whether this is beyond the librarian's competence - to draw the user's attention to the problems of plagiarism, be it of a professional, scientific or artistic nature, as well as to the implicit disrespect for the scientific paper composition. On the other hand, it is also an open question to what extent the librarian should assist the user in the process of individual research and whether the "Ask the Librarian" project type that is so popular in the developed countries and rated highly as an indicator of the usefulness and necessity of libraries, can be said to yield support for plagiarism. There is no precise and comprehensive answer to that question, just like in many other real-life situations.
b) Copyright and private collections (case study)
The librarian's responsibility is an expected constant when it comes down to using the current publishing industry products in the regular holdings of publicly financed libraries as well as in special collections and personal libraries.
Copyright protection in libraries most often refers to temperance and partiality in copying the printed matter or to protecting individual sources on the Internet. Libraries, as a rule, obey copyright by the mere fact that they preserve their holdings, especially manuscripts and integral library items that are signed by owners. That may bring another dimension of copyright into focus, viz. the one transcending the law in such cases where libraries keep the books by a specific individual and in accordance with the will ofthat individual. Under such circumstances, the regard for some of the successors and plenipotentiaries in relation to the library can be overriding. However, obeying the author's intellectual property should by no means be restrictive or make an impression like this.
c) Copyright and copying (case study on the current rare textbook and digital record)
The question of the user's rights protection, regarding the knowledge and information accessibility with a reasonable use of modern reprographic services, if the edition has been sold out, and the publisher or author are not interested in its reissuing, remains open, with no decisive answer, to depend on the knowledge and honesty of the librarian and reader, as well as on their ultimate intention and goal, split into the educational-scientific and commercial. The possible profitability of used sources looks like a logical limitation, but if we thought deeper over every individual case to which that rule could be applied, we would certainly face a doubt. If the official legal documents did not define these concepts clearly, than the librarian could be certainly expected to make errors and be incontinent, because the dose of subjectivity in deciding will always exist.
The Digital Millennium Copyright Act ( DMCA), passed by the United States' Congress in 1998, is concerned with ethical issues of using library material, and in 2001 it was supplemented with explanations regarding partial restrictions in the use of digital records. New media had appeared whose content requires legal protection, but a final solution to the problems of citing and paraphrasing materials created or produced by others for commercial and noncommercial purposes was not reached. There has been some thinking about citing as copyright violation since the mid- 1 980s, but a variety of principal problems in terms of citation practices and citation analysis remain unsolved so far. The intriguing questions pop up again: To what an extent do the paraphrases represent copyright violation, and when are they to be seen as the promotion of results and the author's contribution to the public? Does the prevention of photocopying and printing, magnetic recording and scanning of some portions really result in copyright protection, or do researchers only get slowed down in data compilation, which has to be done in the same way as the users of libraries and archives did some fifty years ago, when the advantages of present-day technological advancement are no longer at their disposal?
d) Copyright and digital repositories (case study with authorized and non-authorized digital full-texts)
It is possible that, anxious about the individual, we are forgetting the collective organized approach to the authorial work. We tend to think of librarians as of mediators between the authors and users who try to rationally and benevolently protect the interests of both sides. We thereby forget about a very explicit need on the part of librarians to offer the user complex, timely, accurate information. This often implies, without previous regulation of the copyright on library portals, locating the full versions of the material, which have been reproduced, but not printed, and exist as deposit copies formally owned by the library. For example, Masters and Ph.D. theses in specialized fields are, without doubt, necessary to the university community because of which they are kept in higher-education institutions, but without the author's prior permission to appear in another medium. If we went deeper into this problem, the specialized collections in numerous libraries housing video, audio or photo recordings of literary evenings, musical manifestations, exhibitions, could be considered illegal, because, by and large, their content was approved neither by the authors, artists, composers, etc. nor by those present at such events.
Thus, we may ask the question about a narrowed approach to information because of the emergence and impact of the new media and recent progress in information technology and because of the influence of economic/financial parameters on collection management. The increasingly marketing-intensive and commodity-conscious appearance of some bidders and database dealers, for example, clearly illustrate the harsh economic realities facing libraries in these times of great change.
The university as the home of free ideas and as a community of lecturers and students associated in the process of searching the truth, as Karl Jaspers saw it, nowadays has to dedicate itself to adopting the principles of democratic tolerance and intellectual freedom. The library is its partner. Thus, libraries, as educational, cultural, scientific and reference centers, not only have to make sure that their activities are in keeping with the technological developments, but they should primarily keep their focus on the need for altering the mission and vision of their own activities. Thus, the occupation of a librarian is particularly demanding in the countries faced with difficulties in establishing economic stability and technological development and confronting the deficiency of social potentials and personnel resources that would be dedicated to consolidation of civil liberties and rights. The answers to education for freedom of information offered by this text represent validated models based on global theoretic knowledge and legislature, local and foreign examples, that insures argumentation, veracity of attitudes and certainty of application of articulated concepts. In defining proposals for curricula and programs dealing with free access to information, it was mandatory to operate, as it was done, on the grounds of general truth which has been concisely and distinctly presented by Michael Gorman as an answer to the question why libraries are so important: "Because libraries and librarians contribute to all that we value about society - the greater good."13
References and Notes
1. Karl Jaspers, The Idea of the Universil, ed. Karl. W. Deutsch, trans. H.A.T. Reiche and F. Vanderschmidt (Boston : Beacon Press, 1959).
3. Richard E. Bopp and Linda C. Smith, eds., Reference and Information Services: An Introduction, 3rd ed. (Englewood, Colo.: Libraries Unlimited: 2001 ), 44.
4. Michael Gorman, Our Enduring Values: Librarianship in the 21st Century (Chicago: ALA, 2000); Michael Gorman, "Library Values in a Changing World," in Perspectives, Insights and Priorities, ed. Norman Horrocks, 55-62 (Maryland: The Scarecrow Press: 2005).
6. Francis T. Kirkwood, "Strengthening Free Access to Information and Free Expression through Libraries in Africa," WSIS Follow-up Conference on Access to Information and Knowledge for Development, United Nations Conference Centre, Addis Ababa. Ethiopia, March 27-20, 2006, 4, http://www.uneca.org/disd/events/2006/wsis-library/ presentations/Strengthening%20free%20access%20to%20information%20and% 20free%20expression%20through%20libraries%20in%20Africa%20-%20Francis%20Ki rkwood%20-%20EN.pdf (accessed February 20, 2007).
7. A.J. Evans, A Report Prepared for the IFLA Council Meeting in Copenhagen, Denmark 1997 http://www.ifla.org/faife/policy/caife_e.htm (accessed February 20, 2007).
8. Robert W. Vaagan, ed.. The Ethics of Librarianship: An International Survey (Munich: Saur, 2002).
9. George Goodall, "Shelving the Code of Ethics: Bend it like Bentham," London, ON, June 14, 2003, 4-7 http://www.deregulo.com/facetation/pdfs/shelvingCodeOtEthics.pdf, (accessed February 20, 2007).
10. UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, Universal Declaration of Human Rights http://www.unhchr.ch/udhr/ (accessed May 1, 2007).
11. The IFLA Internet Manifesto, http://www.ifla.org/III/misc/im-e.htm (accessed May 1, 2007).
13. Michael Gorman, "Library Values in a Changing World," 62.
About the Author
Aleksandra Vranes is a full professor, Faculty of Philology, Department of Library and Information Science, University of Belgrade, Serbia (email@example.com).…
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Publication information: Article title: The Role of University Education in Enabling Free Access to Information. Contributors: Vranes, Aleksandra - Author. Journal title: Journal of Education for Library and Information Science. Volume: 48. Issue: 2 Publication date: Spring 2007. Page number: 139+. © Association for Library and Information Science Education Fall 2008. Provided by ProQuest LLC. All Rights Reserved.
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