Changing Social Norms: A Mass Media Campaign for Youth Ages 12-18

By Schmidt, Eileen Msw; Kiss, Susan Mide Ma et al. | Canadian Journal of Public Health, January/February 2009 | Go to article overview

Changing Social Norms: A Mass Media Campaign for Youth Ages 12-18


Schmidt, Eileen Msw, Kiss, Susan Mide Ma, Lokanc-Diluzio, Wendi Rn, Mn, Canadian Journal of Public Health


ABSTRACT

Objective: To create a mass media campaign that endeavours to a) denormalize tobacco use among youth aged 12-18, b) empower youth to stay tobacco product free, and c) increase awareness of the dangers of tobacco use, while using positive messaging.

Participants: Target age group was youth between the ages of 12 and 18 years.

Setting: The mass media campaign was developed, implemented, and evaluated within the city of Calgary.

Intervention: The mass media campaign consisted of posters for schools and other venues frequented by youth (e.g., community centres, libraries, fitness centres, restaurants, movie theatres), posters for transit (e.g., bus shelters, LRT shelters, back of bus) print advertisements, television/radio public service announcements, an interactive community website for youth, a media launch event, promotional items, and organizational efforts to cross-promote the campaign. The creative concept was based on intercept interviews, focus group testing, and other research conducted by the campaign's creative team and youth volunteers in order to identify the key elements of this campaign.

Outcomes: A total of 149 students completed both a baseline and follow-up survey to evaluate the marketing activities of the campaign. A total of 27 youth participated in prototype testing to compare this positive-messaging campaign with negative-toned tobacco reduction campaigns. Six stakeholders/partners participated in stakeholder interviews to assess their thoughts and learnings regarding the campaign process.

Conclusion: The evaluation respondents viewed the campaign positively and showed strong recall of the messaging.

Key words: Social marketing; youth; tobacco reduction

La traduction du résumé se trouve à la fin de l'article. Can J Public Health 2009;100(1):41-45.

Commercial tobacco use among youth is a public health concern because it is addictive and lethal. Tobacco use causes 90% of lung cancers, 75% of emphysema and chronic bronchitis, and 25% of ischaemic heart disease.1 Youth are considered a high-risk group in terms of smoking uptake. According to Statistics Canada, 14.8% of Canadian youth between 12 and 19 years of age smoked in 2003.2 The Canadian Tobacco Use Monitoring Survey reported that 18% of youth aged 15-19 smoked in 2005.3 It is estimated that one third of smokers began smoking by the time they reached age 15.4 Additionally, according to one study, approximately 25% of youth aged 11-18, who had never smoked, were receptive to smoking (failed to state they would "definitely not" smoke).5

Favourable support exists for the effectiveness of social marketing to reduce and prevent tobacco use among youth.6,7 This article will report an intervention entitled, Changing Social Norms: A Mass Media Campaign for Youth Ages 12 to 18 Years. The objective of the intervention was to develop a mass media campaign within a social marketing framework to denormalize tobacco product use in youth. The intervention endeavoured to use a strengths-based approach to increase awareness of the dangers of tobacco use and empower youth to stay tobacco free. Within this article, social marketing is defined according to Andreasen's commonly used description:

"The application of commercial marketing technologies to the analysis, planning, execution and evaluation of programs designed to influence the voluntary behavior of target audiences in order to improve their personal welfare and that of their society." 8

This includes using marketing principles that will persuade the target audience to reject, change, accept or discard a behaviour.9,10

Participants and setting

The target population for this campaign included youth between the ages of 12 and 18 within the city of Calgary. The primary target of this campaign included youth who had experimented with tobacco products (1 to 100 cigarettes smoked). This group was targeted instead of the general population because campaigns tend to experience greater success when concentrating on a segmented audience,11 and many failed campaigns may be a result of not targeting a specific population and their needs and interests.

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Changing Social Norms: A Mass Media Campaign for Youth Ages 12-18
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.