Mock-Ups as "Interactive Laboratories": Mixed Methods Research Using Inpatient Unit Room Mock-Ups

By Watkins, Nicholas; Myers, Donald et al. | HERD : Health Environments Research & Design Journal, Fall 2008 | Go to article overview

Mock-Ups as "Interactive Laboratories": Mixed Methods Research Using Inpatient Unit Room Mock-Ups


Watkins, Nicholas, Myers, Donald, Villasante, Ronald, HERD : Health Environments Research & Design Journal


Abstract

Objective: To establish evidence-based design (EBD) guidelines for inpatient rooms at Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) facilities.

Background: Simulation allows clients, designers, and researchers to visualize how users might interact with a proposed design before actual construction of the design. This study used mock-ups as a simulation technique during a study of the VA inpatient room standards. The participants used the inpatient room mock-ups as "interactive laboratory" environments to maximize opportunities for participatory design, qualitative research, and quantitative research of projectspecific EBD solutions.

Methods: The research used questionnaires, scenarios, ondemand modifications, and observations to evaluate and confirm EBD solutions for inpatient room mock-ups. A total of 71 participants responded to a questionnaire administered across five mock-up work sessions. These 71 participants consisted of administrators, nurses, physicians, support staff, environment and maintenance staff, and patient and staff safety representatives from throughout the VA healthcare system.

Results and Discussion: EBD solutions were tested, evaluated, and modified for each inpatient room type and were applicable to two or more of the inpatient room types. The latter included the location of patient beds and standard headwall position, technology and spaces for nurse charting activities, clearances (e.g., equipment, wheelchair, and bariatric patient), universal rooms, and patient and family amenities. Also, EBD solutions were tested, validated, and modified to the needs of each inpatient room.

Conclusion: The mock-ups allowed researchers and designers to evaluate and confirm EBD solutions and strategies for the development of VA inpatient room standards. When used as a means for mixed-methods research, mock-ups can successfully integrate research and design during project-related work. EBD research using mock-ups not only addresses project- or organization-specific concerns, but it may contribute to the knowledge base of the healthcare design community.

Key Words: Simulation, mock-up, mixed-methods methodology, universal room

Introduction

Simulation techniques allow designers and researchers to see how users might interact with a design without having to observe or measure user behaviors in an actual setting (Groat & Wang, 2002). Simulation is commonly used in military training and the aviation and retail industries (Bajaj, Mirka, Sommerich, & Khachatoorian, 2006; Macedonia, Gherman, & Satin, 2003). In these fields, determining how people might perform or react to real-life scenarios can help master skills, prevent emergencies, and translate into increased revenue. Scenarios are performed in a neutral setting where error and uncertainty will not cause physical or financial harm.

There has been a surge of interest in simulation techniques throughout the healthcare design industry. Currently, medical fields that routinely use simulation include anesthesiology, gynecology, and obstetrics (Maslovitz, Barkai, Lessing, Ziv, & Many, 2007; Shavit, et al., 2007). Additionally, simulation is used widely for surgery (e.g., endoscopy) and emergency medicine (DeVita, Schaefer, Lutz, Wang, & Dongilli, 2005).

Mock-ups are physical representations of real-life settings. As such, they allow people to experience, experiment with, and revise operations and design challenges within a short inception-revision cycle (Bell, 2007). For example, mock-ups offer settings where events from clinical practice can be rehearsed. Compared to virtual reality simulations, mock-ups are better at simulating repetitive activities, teamwork activities, infrequent events (e.g., emergency code responses), and complex technology (DeVita, et al., 2005). Mock-ups remove participants from their everyday environments, thereby allowing them the objectivity to discover and evaluate aspects of their work setting (Evans, 2007).

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Mock-Ups as "Interactive Laboratories": Mixed Methods Research Using Inpatient Unit Room Mock-Ups
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.