Type 1 Diabetes in Children

By Wilson, Sarah A. B.; Posey, W. Mark et al. | National Association of School Psychologists. Communique, March/April 2009 | Go to article overview

Type 1 Diabetes in Children


Wilson, Sarah A. B., Posey, W. Mark, Schneider, Elizabeth M., National Association of School Psychologists. Communique


Type 1 diabetes is a relatively common childhood chronic health condition in which the pancreas makes insufficient insulin (Watson & Logan, 1998). Insulin is necessary in order to metabolize glucose (or sugar) in the blood, which the body then uses as its main source of energy. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease for many patients because the pancreas stops making enough insulin when the immune system destroys most of the beta cells in the pancreas. Still, for some patients with Type 1 diabetes, there is no known cause.

Prior to diagnosis, children with Type 1 diabetes often experience a combination of the following symptoms: increased blood sugar, frequent urination, excessive thirst/appetite, weight loss, elevated blood sugar (hyperglycemia), glucose in the urine, and a significant increase in ketones found in the blood and/or urine. Ketones are chemicals produced when the body breaks down fat for energy due to insufficient insulin. Because the child with Type 1 diabetes does not produce sufficient insulin, insulin must be administered, usually by insulin pump or insulin injection. Most children maintain healthy blood sugar levels by using a combination of rapid acting and long acting insulin. Rapid acting insulin begins to lower blood sugar almost immediately, while long acting insulin begins to lower blood sugar within 4 to 6 hours. In order to determine how much insulin they need, children with diabetes must check their blood sugar multiple times per day using a blood glucose meter. In addition, a child's HbA1c (glycosylated hemoglobin) is a blood test that provides a measure of average glycemic control over several months. Glycemic control is the degree to which blood glucose is maintained within the normal range of glucose values. The amount of insulin that the child needs throughout the day is also determined by counting the number of carbohydrates the child will eat or has eaten during meals or snacks. Thus, the treatment regimen for children diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes requires frequent, close monitoring of the child's diet and blood sugar levels. Consequently, parents and children must be educated in the skills necessary for successful treatment adherence. A certified diabetes educator provides this education to families, most commonly at a local hospital. Typically, an Individualized Health Plan (IHP) is developed with the school to ensure that the child's health needs are recognized and addressed in the school setting as well.

Without acceptable treatment adherence and the availability of sufficient insulin, children with Type 1 may experience a range of short-term and long-term effects (Watson 8c Logan, 1998). A child's treatment adherence determines how well the diabetes is controlled, and poor glycemic control has been associated with increased negative effects. These effects may be physical, cognitive, academic, psychosocial, or behavioral in nature.

SHORT-TERM EFFECTS

Diabetes often results in acute effects because of hypoglycemic or hyperglycemic episodes. These episodes arise when insulin, diet, and physical activity are not properly balanced. Hyperglycemia occurs when blood glucose is abnormally high, while hypoglycemia occurs when blood glucose is lower than normal. The short-term physical effects of poor control may include a return of prediagnosis symptoms if the child is hyperglycemic. Individuals experiencing hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia may present with symptoms that include confusion, hunger, trembling, sweating, sleepiness, inability to speak, blurred vision, fatigue, dry mouth, irritability, excessive thirst, and/ or excessive urination. A child experiencing hypoglycemia with a rapid drop in blood glucose levels may appear shaky, pale, or sweaty. At this time, children may require an injection of glucagon in order to raise their blood sugar. Glucagon is a hormone produced by the pancreas that acts to raise blood sugar. The potential similarity in symptoms between hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia highlights the importance of learning the child's unique behavioral symptoms for each condition. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Type 1 Diabetes in Children
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.