Mortality in Catalonia in the Context of the Third, Fourth and Future Phases of the Epidemiological Transition Theory

By Spijker, Jeroen; Llorens, Amand Blanes | Demographic Research, January-June 2009 | Go to article overview

Mortality in Catalonia in the Context of the Third, Fourth and Future Phases of the Epidemiological Transition Theory


Spijker, Jeroen, Llorens, Amand Blanes, Demographic Research


Abstract

In the period 1960-2000, male and female life expectancy in Spain's Autonomous Region of Catalonia increased by 8.2 and 10.5 years, respectively, thus raising it to among one of the highest in the world. Initially, most gains were due to lower infant mortality, but as cardiovascular diseases declined, this later shifted to advanced ages. Between the mid-1980s and early 1990s life expectancy improvements stagnated as the mortality risk from traffic accidents and HIV/AIDS in young adults increased. Both the age-delay in old age mortality and the simultaneous influence of behavior and lifestyle reflect distinct aspects of the fourth stage of the epidemiological transition. This analysis quantifies the age and cause-of-death contributions to changes and sex-differences in life expectancy in Catalonia. We then compare the most recent life table for women with the Duchene-Wunsch limited life table to estimate the potential gain in life expectancy if all deaths were aging-related and in which ages these improvements would fall.

1. Introduction

The decline of mortality constitutes one of the basic, perhaps most fundamental, aspects of demographic change in the 20th century. Its history shows a large heterogeneity between countries, with a variety of traditional models that have been defined in function of its timing, intensity, extent, and underlying causes. Catalonia is one of Spain's Autonomous Regions, but with a larger population than for example Denmark, and is an example of the accelerated transition within the western model, as changes were similar but occurred over a shorter period of time (and later). During the last century, male and female life expectancy increased by 40 and 45 years, respectively, during which time Catalonia consistently enjoyed a higher life expectancy than Spain as a whole. While their current levels are among the highest in the world, the impact of HIV/AIDS and an increased number of motor vehicle accidents caused male life expectancy to actually drop in Catalonia during the second half of the 1980s. This did not occur in Spain as a whole, hence the accelerated mortality transition and the influence of behavior and lifestyle on the mortality trends of young adults merit studying Catalonia on its own.

The objective of this article is to describe and analyze mortality trends in Catalonia during the last four decades, starting with the beginning of the 1960s. At that time life expectancy at birth was still slightly lower than the average for the 15 Western European countries of the European Union (former EU15): 68.0 vs. 68.3 years for men and 72.8 vs. 73.8 years for women. Analysis is set within the conceptual framework of the epidemiological transition, whereby the evolution of Catalonian survival and mortality patterns is analyzed based on the features that define the last phases of the transition. Our study therefore links up well with similar studies on the evolution of Canadian mortality during the latter half of the 20th century (e.g. Bah and Rajulton 1991; Lussier et al. 2008). In order to attain our objective, life tables have been reconstructed, making it possible to analyze mortality by age and sex. First, the effects of changes in the age- and sex-specific mortality risk on the change in life expectancy over time are quantified. Subsequently, from 1980, causes of death are introduced. This permits a more detailed study of the characteristics of the current pattern of mortality in Catalonia, and can therefore be seen as an extension of recent research by Gómez- Redondo and Boe (2005) on the contributions of age and sex to changes in life expectancy at birth in Spain.

The theory of the epidemiological transition, formulated by Omran (1971, 1983), establishes a general framework to describe and interpret the changes in mortality and health patterns during the broad decline of mortality, as well as its determinants and consequences. Until the second half of the 19th century, mortality was still partly subjected to "plagues and famines" (first phase). …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Mortality in Catalonia in the Context of the Third, Fourth and Future Phases of the Epidemiological Transition Theory
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.