The Effects of School-Based Curricula on Reading Achievement of African American Males in Special Education

By Anderson, Kenneth A.; Sadler, Camelia I. | The Journal of Negro Education, Summer 2009 | Go to article overview
Save to active project

The Effects of School-Based Curricula on Reading Achievement of African American Males in Special Education


Anderson, Kenneth A., Sadler, Camelia I., The Journal of Negro Education


Longitudinal research on reading curricula and skills that predict future reading achievement for African American males in special education is quite limited. Using a national sample over a five-year period, this study highlights reading skills most associated with later reading achievement for African American males in special education. For African American males in special education, findings show that prior comprehension ability is consistently associated with future reading comprehension after several years. Other commonly taught reading skills produced inconsistent results and were less reliable for African American males in special education, but more consistent for non-African American males in special education. Curricular implications and practices for these findings are discussed.

Large-scale studies focused on school-based reading curricula and teaching techniques, largely fail to include or adequately address the needs of African American males. A key concern related to the lack of inclusion of African American males in large-scale literacy studies is that large-scale studies are often used to influence educational policy and practices (see policies and standards in What Works Clearinghouse, 2008). Moreover, research has shown that literacy levels are linked to future achievement, student behavioral issues, and delinquency (Anderson, Howard, Graham, 2007; Geliert & Elbro, 1999; Kowaleski-Jones & Duncan, 1999).

Considering the literacy underachievement of African American males and the overrepresentation of African American males in special education (Anderson, 2007; Ebersole & Kapp, 2007; Hall, 2006; Hilliard, 2003; Washington, 2001; Watkins & Kurtz, 2001), this article will attempt to address literacy underachievement and African American males in special education by making contributions in four areas: first, the dearth of reading-related curricular studies that include substantial samples of African American students will be discussed; second, problems associated with the Report of the National Reading Panel (NRP): Teaching Children to Read, a major study that was used to frame current day reading-related curricula and teaching techniques will be presented (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NCIHD, 2000); third, a review of the literature regarding African American males in special education will be presented and assumptions associated with the NRP will be tested using a longitudinal, national sample of African American male students in special education. Finally, implications for school-based reading curricula and instructional techniques for African American males will be discussed.

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Reading-related Curriculum Research

Reading-related curricula and teaching research containing large samples of African American males are limited in the peer-reviewed public domain. In response to the need for more guidance to practice on reading interventions for African American males, this review synthesizes a select number of the experimental and quasi-experimental studies on reading conducted with African Americans from 1994-2004. The aforementioned period is critical for two reasons: (a) the years 1994-2004 cover the timeframe in which the NRP conducted their review of research which heavily influenced reading curricula in the United States, and (b) key reading-related studies primarily focusing on African Americans were identified and presented in the peer-reviewed literature during this period (see Lindo, 2006). A key contribution of Lindo's review is that her review focused solely on experimental or quasi-experimental studies published in peer-reviewed journals with a specific reading intervention of some sort. Furthermore, the purpose of her review was to document the small presence of African Americans included in empirical studies of this type. Specifically, out of three highly regarded peer-reviewed journals - Reading Research Quarterly, Journal of Educational Psychology, and Scientific Studies in Reading - she found that from 1994-2004, 0.

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
Loading One moment ...
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

Cited article

The Effects of School-Based Curricula on Reading Achievement of African American Males in Special Education
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

While we understand printed pages are helpful to our users, this limitation is necessary to help protect our publishers' copyrighted material and prevent its unlawful distribution. We are sorry for any inconvenience.
Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.

Are you sure you want to delete this highlight?