Intelligence in the 21st Century

By Bandali, Naveed | Journal of International Peace Operations, November/December 2009 | Go to article overview

Intelligence in the 21st Century


Bandali, Naveed, Journal of International Peace Operations


An Interview with General Michael V. Hayden (Ret.)

GENERAL Michael V. Hayden (Ret) served as director of the Central Intelligence Agency (2006-2009), Principal Deputy Director of National Intelligence (2005-2006), andas director of the National Security Agency and Chief of the Central Security Service (1999-2005). He retired as a Four-Star General from the U.S. Air Force in July 2008.

JPO: You have said before that the objective of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is to protect the American people, jet due to public and oversight pressures CIA is increasingly challenged by limitations on its operational space. Can you intelligence community faces?

General Hayden: CIA is an espionage service and we do secret things. Frankly, I think this is very compatible with democracies. Moreover, I personally think it is very necessary for democracies in order to protect themselves and to allow their citizens the greatest amount of personal freedom.

In the West, we now exist inside broader political cultures that demand greater transparency and accountability from all elements of society. However, we have not yet arrived at some sort of equilibrium as to how to meet this need for transparency and accountability while still maintaining the degree of secrecy needed for organizations like CIA to exist or to function at all. This is a new phenomenon for us and we have to come to what is, frankly, a new social contract.

One way to do this is through increased transparency to Congress and our oversight bodies. We have to deal with the question of legislative oversight as well as creating more transparency for the general public. Otherwise, we will be mistrusted. This is a work in progress. Putting aside their individual merits, some things that certain members of Congress have recently said are reflective of this more fundamental question of greater transparency inside our political culture as well as the reactions of secret intelligence services.

JlPO: What are the advantages and disadvantages of private contractor support for CIA and the intelligence community?

General Hayden: In this current political culture it is very fashionable - unfortunately in a far too simplistic way - to say, "Government good, contractor bad." All aspects of our society and all aspects of our government routinely go to the private sector for skills, services and products. It simply makes sense to go to the private sector. Why should we in the intelligence community deny ourselves the richness of capabilities that exist inside the private sector?

Too often though, this is viewed by some as CIA or other intelligence agencies avoiding responsibility - creating a carveout. I have said publicly that if anyone is acting as an agent of CIA, whether it is a government employee, a contractor or a foreign agent, the director of CIA is equally responsible for what that individual does on behalf of CIA. So there is no carveout there.

However, if you are continually going to contractors for particular functions, a fair question is, "Why are you not building that capacity inside the agency?" But, as far as the general proposition of going to contractors for particular activities - I think that is as natural, as American, as modern and as efficient as I can imagine. There should not be any natural pushback against contractors. Instead you should consider building up capabilities in your own organic workforce.

Many times when testifying to Congress, I would comment on or relate a particular narrative about something we were doing or about to do, and I would be asked if it was being carried out by contractors or by government employees. And very frequently I would have to say, "You know, I have no idea. I can tell you that we have the best human beings available doing that. But I never asked whether or not it was being done by a contractor." I think this is a healthier attitude than the current, prejudiced attitude that if you use contractors, whatever you are doing must not be good or you are doing it with an ulterior motive. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Intelligence in the 21st Century
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.