Condom Use in Men Who Have Sex with Men: A Literature Review

By Neville, Stephen; Adams, Jeffery | Contemporary Nurse : a Journal for the Australian Nursing Profession, October 2009 | Go to article overview

Condom Use in Men Who Have Sex with Men: A Literature Review


Neville, Stephen, Adams, Jeffery, Contemporary Nurse : a Journal for the Australian Nursing Profession


ABSTRACT

The aim of this paper is to present a review of the literature on the key issues impacting on the decisions, by men who have sex with men, to use, or not use, condoms for anal intercourse. 250 publications were accessed, reviewed, read and sorted; 200 of these were research based and 50 were opinion pieces of work. In addition, 240 of the 250 had undergone a peer review process.

The review presented here shows that men who have sex with men communities are a heterogeneous group and their reasons for engaging in unprotected anal intercourse are inter-related and diverse. Six main themes related to sexual risk behaviour and condom use were identifi ed: the availability of HIV treatments, physical issues, psychosocial issues, intentional practices, internet and substance use. Nurses need to understand these factors if they are to effect positive changes in condom use and address the complex challenges inherent in tackling increased rates of HIV infection.

Keywords: gay men's health; men's health; men who have sex with men; condom use; sexual risk behaviour

INTRODUCTION

At the end of 2005 there were approximately 15,310 people living with HIV in Australia and the incidence of AIDS was 1.3 per 100,000 people, the same as in the United Kingdom and much lower than in the United States (14.3 per 100,000 in 2004) (Neville & Henrickson, 2008). These same authors quote fi gures for New Zealand as being even lower, with an estimated 1400 people living with either HIV or AIDS.

The worldwide view of HIV/AIDS is that it is an epidemic affecting women, men, young people, sex workers, injecting drug users, men who have sex with men, prisoners and babies born with HIV (UNAIDS, 2006). However, in western countries such as the USA and New Zealand the HIV epidemic disproportionately affects men who have sex with men (AIDS Epidemiology Group, 2006; Peterson & Bakeman, 2006). Since HIV was fi rst identifi ed and confi rmed globally by researchers to be sexually transmitted, condoms have unanimously been recommended for protection against HIV transmission in men who have sex with men who engage in anal intercourse (Shernoff, 2006). Within this group are men who do not use condoms during intercourse, a factor that is linked to a signifi cant number of HIV infections but which receives little attention from western media (Aguinaldo & Myers, 2008).

The term men who have sex with men is used in public health, general and specialist sexual health literature to describe men who identify as gay, bisexual and/or heterosexual but report engaging in sexual activity with other men (Young & Meyer, 2005). Consequently, men who have sex with men may be married to women, have sexual relationships with both men and women, be in a longterm exclusive relationship with another man, or may be in a committed same sex relationship but not be sexually exclusive. In addition, men who have sex with men may engage in a variety of safe, safer or unsafe sexual practices. Some of these practices include not using condoms within their primary relationships but doing so when having casual sex with secondary partners, or using condoms for all sexual activities regardless of the relationship or not using condoms at all.

The literature reviewed in this paper provided the background to a qualitative descriptive study commissioned by the New Zealand AIDS Foundation (Adams & Neville, 2008). A thorough overview of current knowledge about a particular topic is integral to the research process as it determines what is currently known about the topic under investigation (Schneider, Whitehead, & Elliott, 2007). The aim of this paper is to present a review of the literature on the key issues impacting on decisions by men who have sex with men to use, or not use, condoms for anal intercourse.

IDENTIFICATION OF THE LITERATURE

Guidelines, as summarised by Hayes et al. (2006), were utilised for accessing literature. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Condom Use in Men Who Have Sex with Men: A Literature Review
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.