Adaptation of the ESPA29 Parental Socialization Styles Scale to the Basque Language: Evidence of Validity

By López-Jáuregui, Alicia; Oliden, Paula Elosua | The Spanish Journal of Psychology, July 1, 2009 | Go to article overview

Adaptation of the ESPA29 Parental Socialization Styles Scale to the Basque Language: Evidence of Validity


López-Jáuregui, Alicia, Oliden, Paula Elosua, The Spanish Journal of Psychology


The aim of this study is to adapt the ESPA29 scale of parental socialization styles in adolescence to the Basque language. The study of its psychometric properties is based on the search for evidence of internal and external validity. The first focuses on the assessment of the dimensionality of the scale by means of exploratory factor analysis. The relationship between the dimensions of parental socialization styles and gender and age guarantee the external validity of the scale. The study of the equivalence of the adapted and original versions is based on the comparisons of the reliability coefficients and on factor congruence. The results allow us to conclude the equivalence of the two scales.

Keywords: parental socialization styles, adolescence, test adaptation.

El objetivo de este trabajo es adaptar al euskera la escala de estilos de socialización parental ESPA29. El estudio de sus propiedades psicométricas descansa en la búsqueda de evidencias internas y externas de validez. Las primeras se centran en la evaluación de la dimensionalidad de la escala a través de un análisis factorial exploratorio. La relación entre las distintas dimensiones de la socialización y las variables sexo y edad garantizan la validez externa de la escala. El estudio de equivalencia entre las versiones original y adaptada se apoya en la comparación entre los coeficientes de fiabilidad y de la congruencia factorial. Los resultados permiten concluir la equivalencia entre las dos escalas.

Palabras clave: estilos de socialización parental, adolescencia, adaptación de tests.

The role of the family as the transmitter of values, attitudes, and behaviors is unquestionable. Hence, the interest of sociologists, psychologists, and pedagogues has focused on analyzing the relationships within the family. Processes of parental socialization and their consequences on children have been the object of research in the cross-cultural (Arnett, 1995; Scarr, 1993), psychological and educational dimensions (Musitu & Allat, 1994).

Adolescence is a critical stage in the lives of individuals, in which they consolidate their values and identity and they conquer autonomy (Allen, Hauser, Bell, & O?Connor, 1993; Collins, 1990), achievements that frequently lead to psychological and relational tensions and the risk of problematic or maladaptive behaviors (Moore & Rosenthal, 1993).

Many studies coincide in stating that the quality of relationships in adolescence determines children's adjustment and psychological well-being. Parents' warmth, proximity, and involvement, combined with vigilance and control, contribute to good psychosocial, academic, and behavioral adjustment (Martínez & García, 2007; Oliva, Parra, & Sánchez-Quejía, 2002; Steinberg, Darling, & Fletcher, 1995; Steinberg, Dornbusch, & Brown, 1992), higher social competence and autonomy (Lamborn, Mounts, Steinberg, & Dornbusch, 1991), positive attitudes towards school and work, academic achievement, and self-esteem (Linver & Silverberg, 1997; Maccoby & Martin, 1983; Steinberg, Lamborn, Darling, Mounts, & Dornbusch, 1994; Steinberg, Lamborn, Dornbusch, & Darling, 1992), as well as a lower incidence of depression, school problems, delinquency, and drug abuse (Baumrind, 1971; Darling & Steinberg, 1993; Jacobson & Crockett, 2000; Parish & McCluskey, 1992). In contrast, hostility and the use of punishments and coercion combined with scarce vigilance and control contribute to the emergence of problematic and antisocial behaviors in adolescence (Conger, Patterson, & Ge, 1995; Dishion, Patterson, Stoolmiller, & Skinner, 1991).

However, the impact of parental practices on the children is not independent of the social and ethnic-cultural context in which the family system is inset (Lin & Fu, 1990; Martínez & García, 2007; Zern, 1984). For example, whereas in Asian cultures, high levels of discipline and imposition have a positive influence on the children (Chao, 2001), in western cultures, optimum adjustment is obtained with high levels of affection, acceptance, and involvement. …

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