Emotional Intelligence and Self-Efficacy as Determinants of Academic Achievement in English Language among Students in Oyo State Senior Secondary Schools
Adeoye, Hammed, Emeke, E. Adenike, Ife Psychologia
This study investigated the impact of emotional intelligence and self efficacy training on academic achievement in English Language of students in Senior Secondary Schools. The sample consisted of 270 participants drawn from nine co-educational schools across three selected educational zones. Simple random sampling technique was used to select three schools from each zone among those that met the inclusion criteria set for the study. Adopting a pre-test, post-test, control group quasi-experiile mental design, one null hypothesis was tested at 0.05 level of significance. Using Emotional Intelligence Training Package (EIPTA), Self Efficacy Training Package (SEPTA) and English Language Achievement Test (r=0.73), the administration of interventions lasted for eight weeks. Data were analysed using ANCOVA and the Duncan post hoc test to examine the impact of emotional intelligence and self efficacy training on the achievement of senior secondary school students in English language.
There was a significant main effect of treatment on students' academic achievement in English language (F (2,269) = 364.447, P<0.05). Students exposed to Emotional intelligence training (x=42.81) performed better in the English language achievement test than those in the Self-efficacy training group (x=33.88) and those in the Control group (x=27.89). Though Emotional intelligence and Self-efficacy trainings tremendously enhanced the performance of the students in English Language, Emotional intelligence training had a more significant impact on students' academic achievement. It is recommended that students' academic achievement should be enhanced with the use of emotional intelligence and self-efficacy training.
Key words: Emotional intelligence, Self -efficacy, Academic achievement in English language.
The trend of results of students over the past one decade in English Language and Mathematics in the two major public examinations in Nigeria- the West African Examinations School Certificate Examinations (WASCE) and the National Examinations Council (NECO) has been that of poor performance as evidenced from Table 1 .
It is disheartening to note that despite the importance of English Language, the poor performance of students in this subject has continued unabated. English Language up till now is a compulsory subject at all levels of education and a credit pas in it is required for admission into tertiary institutions. Therefore if one weighs the vital role English language plays in the society against the backdrop of the continuously poor performance of students in the subject, it becomes imperative as Ibode (2004) pointed out that further steps need be taken to address the situation. Many studies, Adegbija, (2000) Adeagbo, (2004) and Palmer, (1994) have emphasized the effect of students' attitude, socio-economic background, gender and peer group influence on students' academic achievement. Apart from these factors, other factors that can also affect academic achievement include emotional intelligence and self- efficacy
Though the concept of emotional intelligence was first introduced in organizations, its relevance made the concept an inevitable concept of consideration in the educational sector too. Teaching emotional intelligence skills in schools is very important because it can positively affect academic achievement not only during the session they are taught, but in subsequent years as well (Elias, Brune, Butler, Blum dd Schumier, 1997). According to Caruso, Mayer and Salovey (2002), emotional intelligence skills and knowledge can be developed and learned and it matters most in times of change.
Emotional intelligence is an ability to recognize one's own feeling and those of others, for motivating self as well as one's relationship with others. Laabs' (1999) study of the climate of individual teacher's classroom concluded that teachers who are more aware of how students feel in the classroom are better able to design a learning environment that suits students and better able to guide them towards success. Studies (e.g. Ediger, 1997; Parker, Summerfeldt, Hogan dd Majeski 2004)) have shown that the acquisition of emotional intelligence skills can significantly contribute to positive thinking in students and increase their ability to concentrate for a long time
Self- efficacy which refers to a person's judgment of own capabilities to organize and execute courses of action required to attain designated type of performance has also been found to be a major contributor to an individual's academic achievement (Bandura, 1986). Self-efficacy reflects students' judgments of their capability to accomplish specific tasks; it is also a crucial variable in the learning and performance of social, cognitive and motor skills, strategies and behaviours. From the studies of Pajares, (1996); Pajares and Miller, (1997); Pajares & Valliant, (1997), Covington, (2000), Robins & Bear, (2001) it can be concluded that self- efficacy plays a critical role in educational achievement. Compared with students who doubt their learning capabilities, those who feel efficacious for learning or performing a task participate more readily, persist longer when they encounter difficulties and achieve at a higher level (Adeyemo 2008, Aremu & Ogbuagu 2005, Covington, 2000).
In view of the importance of these concepts (Emotional intelligence and Self efficacy) to an individual's academic achievement as well as availability of only few empirical research studies on these variables especially in Nigeria, this study focused investigation on the impact of emotional intelligence training and self- efficacy training on the academic achievement in English language of students in senior secondary schools.
The single hypothesis tested at p< 0.05 level of significance in this study is:
There is no significant main effect of treatment on academic achievement of the sampled students in English language.
This study adopted a non- randomized pre-test, post- test, control group in a quasi- experimental design. Emotional intelligence and Self - efficacy training stand as the independent variables while academic achievement in English language stands as the dependent variable.
The target population for the study comprised all the students in SS2 classes of secondary schools in Oy o State. Using the multi stage sampling procedure, Oyo State was first stratified along the six educational zones from which three were selected based on accessibility. From each of the selected zones, three senior secondary schools were randomly selected from those that met the inclusion criteria. This gave a total of nine schools with three randomly assigned to each of the treatment groups. From each of the selected schools, simple random sampling was used to select a class from which 30 participants were also randomly selected. In all, a total of 270 students participated in the study.
Three instruments made up of two stimuli and one response instruments were used in this study.
(i). Emotional Intelligence Training Package (EITPA) - This training package which has 8 training sessions, with each session devoted to peculiar aspects of emotional training was used by experimental group 1. The 8 sessions, each of which contains orientation, activities and assignments are: Emotional intelligence and its importance in enhancing academic achievement, Self Awareness, Self Management, Social Awareness, Relationship Management, Motivation, Summary of the package and Applications.
(ii). Self- Efficacy Training Package (SEPTA). This package like EIPTA has 8 sessions focusing on: Self efficacy and its importance in enhancing academic achievement, Observation, Motivation, Self-regulation, Attribution, Goal setting, Feedback, Summary of the package and Applications.
(iii) English Language Achievement Test (ELAT) is a 50 item 4option multiple choice instrument for assessing performance in English Language. The reliability coefficient of 0.73 was obtained using the KR 20 statistics.
Procedure for the Study and Data Analysis
Six research assistants who were the Guidance counsellors in the various schools were trained for two weeks of three sessions per week on the rudiments of the emotional intelligence and selfefficacy trainings (the treatments) which will be given to the students; each session lasted between 55-60 minutes. The selected topics in English Language were taught by the English language teachers in the sampled schools. Treatment, which lasted 4 weeks for each experimental group comprised of two sessions per week and each session lasted between 50-55 minutes. In summary, the study which lasted 8 weeks was carried out in three phases of Pre-treatment, Treatment and Evaluation of the treatment. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) with its accompanying Multiple Classification Analysis (MCA) was employed to analyse the data and the Duncan Range Comparison (DRC) was employed as a post- hoc measure.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
There is no significant main effect of treatment on academic achievement of the students.
Table 2 shows that there is a significant main effect of treatment (emotional intelligence training and self efficacy training) on students' achievement in English Language.
From Table 2, treatment has a significant effect on post test scores of the participants [F (2,209) = 364.447; P<0.5]. This means that there is a significant difference in the adjusted post test achievement scores of participants in the experimental group and those in the control. Hence, the null hypothesis is rejected. The Multiple Classification Analysis (MCA) as presented in Table 3 was used to determine the magnitude, direction of the difference as well as the contribution of treatment to the explanation of the participants' achievement in English language.
From Table 3, the participants in Emotional Intelligence group had the highest adjusted post- test achievement score (X= 42. 20) followed by those in the Self -efficacy group (X=34.37) and the Control group (X=28.01). The experimental groups had better achievement scores in English language post- test than those in the control group. These mean scores were obtained by summing up the respective adjusted deviation with the grand mean. This clearly indicates that the two treatment groups are better than the control. The Table also presents a value of beta for the treatment as 0.79 which implies that treatment accounts for (0.79^sup 2^ x 100) = 62.41% of the variation in students' achievement in English language.
Since a significant effect of treatment on the participants' achievement in English language exists, it is necessary to determine which of the three groups is significantly different from each other, Hence the use of Duncan multiple range comparison test. This test was carried out on the adjusted mean scores of the three treatment groups. The results of the comparison are summarized in Table 4.
Table 4 shows that the emotional intelligence group compared with the self efficacy and control groups are significantly different in English language post- test achievement scores. Those in selfefficacy group are significantly different when compared with emotional intelligence and control groups. Participants in the control group are significantly different when compared with emotional intelligence and self efficacy groups respectively. Hence, the significant effect obtained for the treatment on academic achievement in English language is due to the significant differences in the pairs of emotional intelligence and self efficacy, emotional intelligence and control, self efficacy and emotional intelligence, as well as self efficacy and control groups. That is, the 3 pairs contributed to the significant effect of the treatment on academic achievement. Hence, groups 1 (emotional intelligence group) and 2 (self- efficacy group) are consistently better than group 3 (control group) while emotional intelligence group is better than the self-efficacy group.
Let it be recalled that the participants exposed to emotional intelligence training performed better in English language achievement test than those exposed to self- efficacy training, and the two were better than those in the control group. One of the factors which may have aided this group's better performance in English Language achievement test could be the participants' exposure to skills of self awareness, self management, social awareness, relationship management and motivation inherent in the emotional intelligence training. S elf- awareness consists of the individuals' ability to recognize feelings as they occur in real life situations. With self-awareness, the participants had more clarity about their feelings and thoughts, which enabled them to make better choices.
Self management of emotions could have enabled the participants to be aware of their emotions, coped with strong feelings and not be overwhelmed or be paralyzed by them. Participants could find the causes for strong reactions like anger, revenge, fear, sorrow or exhaustion and learnt to understand why these behaviours came to the forefront of their thoughts. Motivation could have made the participants to be goal oriented and able to channel emotion towards desired outcomes. Relationship management would have enabled the participants to recognize emotions in others and to understand others' point of view, thereby making them less prone to negative emotions which are known to retard academic achievement. This assertion finds support in the work of Mayer and Geher (1996), who examining the positive influence of emotional intelligence on academic achievement demonstrated that students who are able to understand and interpret emotions scored lower on measures of emotional defensiv eness, and that this openness to emotion allows individuals to perform better in problem solving situations and academic achievement.
As asserted by Sally, 2002, Wolf, Pescoshodo, Druskat, (2002), emotional intelligence skills add to and strengthen the critical cognitive problem solving skill of pattern recognition and perspective taking. Understanding emotions and feelings help students to give their best potential in the classroom. Students who think negatively cannot concentrate for a long time and have more difficulty in reaching their potential than others. Pool (1997) maintained that emotional well being is a predictor of success in academic achievement and job success among others. Social awareness gives an individual the ability to handle a range of social relationships. Social skills help an individual to understand why he or she does things and serves as the fuel that power his or her actions. In this regard, reference can be made to the Cherniss' (2000) longitudinal Somerville study. Two thirds of the boys came from welfare homes, one third had IQ of below 90 and yet most were adjudged successful in their various endeavours. It was discovered that intelligence quotient had little relation with how well they did at work or in the rest of their lives. What made the biggest difference were childhood abilities such as being able to handle frustration, control emotions and get along with other people. These skills which the participants in this study must have acquired from their exposure to the emotional intelligence training could have informed their observed improved performance
Emotional intelligence also involves the ability to monitor one's own as well as feelings and emotions of others, discriminate among them and use this information to guide one's thinking and action. The possession of these abilities aids an individual's performance in academic achievement (Seligman dd Csikszentmihayi, 2000). The finding of this study confirmed that of Elias, Gara, Schumier, Bradon-Muller dd Sayette, (1991) that teaching emotional and social skills is very important at school, for they affect academic achievement positively not only during the year they are taught, but during the years that follow as well. These skills also have longer-term effect on academic achievement. This result to hypothesis 1 is also in line with those of Ediger (1997), Funegan (1998) Mayer dd Salovey (1997), Petrides et al (2004), Ransdel, (2001), Bjarson (2000) and Newcomb et al (2002). Parker et al (2004) confirmed this result in a longitudinal study examining the transition from high school to the university when he found that emotional intelligence predicts academic achievements. Though the participants used in this study and that of Parker et al are different, the results of the two studies corroborated each other on the importance of emotional intelligence in the enhancement of an individual's academic achievement. The result also finds relevance in the work of Emeke, Adeoye dd Torubelli (2006) in their study of locus of control, self concept and emotional intelligence as correlates of academic achievement among adolescents in senior secondary schools using 600 adolescents from four senior secondary schools when they found that emotional intelligence significantly correlates with improvement in academic achievement of the participants.
The result of this study however, contradicts the earlier ones by Newsome, Day, Catano (2000), Vander Zee, Schäkel and Thyis (2002) who found that emotional intelligence did not correlate with cognitive ability and academic performance. Factors responsible for this result may include the correlational design of the study and the participants used in the study.
The significant effect of self-efficacy on an individual's academic achievement is not surprising considering the fact that selfefficacy deals with the level of confidence individuals have in their ability to execute certain courses of action or achieve specific outcomes especially in relation to academic achievement. It is established that a student who can understand own capability will be able to diagnosis own problem and seek for solution (Bandura, 1997). The better performance of this group could be explained in terms of participants' exposure to self efficacy skills of observation, motivation, self regulation, attribution, goal setting and feedback through self efficacy training. A strong sense of efficacy enhances human accomplishment and personal wellbeing in many ways. People with high assurance in their capabilities approach difficult tasks as challenges to be mastered rather than as threats to be avoided. They set themselves challenging goals and maintain strong commitment to them. They heighten and sustain their efforts in the face of failure. They quickly recover their sense of efficacy after failures or setbacks. They attribute failure to insufficient effort or deficient knowledge and skills, which are acquirable. They approach threatening situations with assurance that they can exercise control over them. Such an efficacious outlook produces personal accomplishments, reduces stress, lowers vulnerability to depression and enhances academic achievement (Bandura, 2000). In contrast, people who doubt their capabilities shy away from difficult tasks which they view as personal threats. They have low aspiration and weak commitment to the goals they choose to pursue. When faced with difficult task, they dwell on their personal deficiencies, on the obstacles they will encounter and on all kinds of adverse outcome rather than concentrate on how to perform successfully. They give up quickly in the face of difficulties and easily fall to stress and depression (Adeyemo & Ogunyemi, 2006).
Bandura (1993, 1995 & 1997) reported that self-efficacy ultimately determines how an individual behaves, thinks and becomes motivated to be involved with particular roles especially academic performance. Self-efficacy also plays a, critical role in an individual's educational achievement (Aremu & Ogbuagu, 2005). Researches in the field of education and in particular in the role of self efficacy on academic achievement has shown positive correlation with performance attainment (Bandura 1986; B empêchant & Drago - Severson, 1999; Covington, 2000; Pajares, 1996; Pajares, 2005; Patrie, Hicks & Ryan, 1997; Schunk, 1995; Zimmerman, Bandura & Martinez- Pons, 1992). The above findings also found relevance in the earlier one by Rasdell (2001) where he found that self- efficacy is a crucial variable in learning and performance in his study on the importance of ability and non cognition variables in predicting college success. On the whole, the improvement in the academic achievement of participants in English Language of the students expose to emotional intelligence and self efficacy training may not be unrelated to the enhancement of their skills through their exposure to the training.
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HAMMED ADEOYE, Ph.D*
International Centre for Educational Evaluation,
Institute of Education, University of Ibadan, Ibadan. Nigeria.
E.ADENIKE EMEKE ,Ph.D[dagger]
International Centre for Educational Evaluation,
Institute of Education, University of Ibadan, Ibadan. Nigeria.
* E-mail/Mobile Phone: ahmedadeove@yahoo. co.uk /+234 803 437 4709
[dagger] Email/Mobile Phone: firstname.lastname@example.org /+234 805 445 9158…
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Publication information: Article title: Emotional Intelligence and Self-Efficacy as Determinants of Academic Achievement in English Language among Students in Oyo State Senior Secondary Schools. Contributors: Adeoye, Hammed - Author, Emeke, E. Adenike - Author. Journal title: Ife Psychologia. Volume: 18. Issue: 1 Publication date: March 2010. Page number: 206+. © IFE Centre for Psychological Studies Mar 2008. Provided by ProQuest LLC. All Rights Reserved.
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