Prevalence of Mental Disorders among High-School Students in Iran: A Systematic Review

By Basirnia, Anahita; Sharifi, Vandad et al. | Iranian Journal of Psychiatry, Winter 2009 | Go to article overview

Prevalence of Mental Disorders among High-School Students in Iran: A Systematic Review


Basirnia, Anahita, Sharifi, Vandad, Mansouri, Naghmeh, Mesgarpour, Bita, Mohammadi, Mohammad-Reza, Amini, Homayoun, Farhoudian, Ali, Yousefi-Nooraie, Reza, Movaghar, Afarin Rahimi, Iranian Journal of Psychiatry


Objective: The aim of the present study is to perform a systematic review of studies that investigated the prevalence of any kind of mental disorders in high school students in Iran.

Method: A broad search was conducted in MEDLINE/PubMed, ISI web of Science, PsychINFO, CINAHL, EMBASE, and three Iranian databases, including IranPsych, IranMedex, and Scientific Information Database (SID). To cover studies not published, we did a hand searching of all theses, reports and congresses' abstract booklets which were available in IranPsych. Then, we included the original studies which reported the prevalence of any kind of mental disorders in high school students; data extraction was performed with two researchers for each document.

Results: Sixteen studies were finally included, representing 19 estimates of mental disorders in high school students, using diagnostic or screening instruments. The prevalence rate of any mental disorder reported by two studies using diagnostic instruments was equal to 16.6% and 4.34%. The median of prevalence rates of mental disorders reported in studies using screening instruments was 34.4%. There was a significant heterogeneity between the studies.

Conclusion: Prevalence rates of mental disorders were reported in a wide range in high school students of Iran. More studies with improved quality are needed in this field.

Keywords: Iran, Mental health, Meta-Analysis, Prevalence, Psychiatry, Review, School, Students

Iran J Psychiatry 2009; 4: 1-6

Mental disorders are among the most common health problems all over the world. Global burden of disease estimates placed mental illness at the top three causes of years lost due to disability (1). Considering early age of onset and the chronic course of these disorders compared with other highly burdensome diseases such as cardiovascular illnesses, more emphasis on mental health of children and adolescents is needed. Prevention, detection, and treatment of childhood and adolescent mental disorders are important not only to relieve current distress but also to improve adult functioning and to prevent the perpetuation of this disadvantage into the next generation (2). For developing any kind of mental health improvement policy, understanding the prevalence of mental disorders is a crucial step (3).

Studies investigating the prevalence of mental disorders in Iran reported a wide range of percentages from 1.9% (4) to 58.8% in adult general population (5). Several factors may contribute to explain these differences such as temporal and geographical characteristics, use of different instruments, small sample sizes or methodological biases. Even two national studies with large sample size differ a lot in their estimations with 10.8% (6) and 21% (7). Lack of a reliable knowledge of the prevalence of mental disorders in Iran is more prominent in the field of child psychiatry.

It seems that there is a need for systematic reviews of the literature addressing prevalence of mental disorders in Iran to build a reliable ground for future studies. Like other fields of medical research, reviews should be based on data that are as complete and as rigorous as possible. Meta-analysis is a tool for extracting and synthesizing new data by means of pooling the data and providing a final value. Even the orderly sorting of data using meta-analytic techniques can provide useful insights into the structure of relevant studies (8).

Trying to have a clear definition of prevalence, in this study, it is defined as the proportion of individuals who manifest a disorder at a specified time, or during a specified period. There are several ways to find out the proportion of people who are affected by a specific mental disorder. However, in this study we reviewed those studies which investigated the prevalence of any kind of mental disorder, not a particular type.

The aim of the present study is to perform a systematic review of studies that have investigated the prevalence of any kind of mental disorders in high school students in Iran.

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Prevalence of Mental Disorders among High-School Students in Iran: A Systematic Review
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.