Validity and Reliability of Preschool, First and Second Grade Versions of Berkeley Parenting Self-Efficacy Scale

By Azizi, Alireza; Mahmoudi-Gharaei, Javad et al. | Iranian Journal of Psychiatry, Winter 2009 | Go to article overview

Validity and Reliability of Preschool, First and Second Grade Versions of Berkeley Parenting Self-Efficacy Scale


Azizi, Alireza, Mahmoudi-Gharaei, Javad, Mirzaei, Azade, Tajeri, Shahrbanoo, Eshaghbeygi, Nazanin, Iranian Journal of Psychiatry


Objective: The purpose of this study is to examine the factor structure, internal consistency, and construct validity of preschool, first and second grade versions of Berkeley Parenting self-efficacy scale.

Method: The subjects were 317 mothers: (102 mothers of preschool children, 111 mothers of first grade children and 104 mothers of second grade children) who were randomly selected from schools in Tehran. They completed Berkeley parenting self-efficacy and Rotter's locus of control scales. Factor analysis using the principle component method was used to identify the factor structure of parenting self-efficacy scale. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was used to identify the reliability of parenting self efficacy scale.

Results: Results of this study indicated that the cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.84, 0.87, 0.64 for preschool, first grade and second grade versions respectively. Based on the scree test ,,factor analysis produced two factors of maternal strategy and child outcome, and it also produced the highest level of total variance explained by these 2 factors. The Parenting self-efficacy scale was negatively associated with measure of locus of control(r=-0.54 for the preschool version, -0.64 for the first grade version and -0.54 for the second grade version).

Conclusion: Due to relatively high reliability and validity of preschool, first and second grade versions of Berkeley Parenting Self-Efficacy scale, this scale could be used as a reliable and valid scale in other research areas

Keywords: parenting self-efficacy scale, validity, reliability, child outcome, maternal strategy

Iran J Psychiatry 2008; 4:23-30

Based on the Social Learning Theory, people like to control events that affect their lives. It is important to note that motivations, affective states and actions are based more on our beliefs than on the truth. Thus efficacy beliefs are very important as major resources of actions. Self-efficacy refers to peoples' beliefs about their capabilities to organize and execute actions that are important in accessing a given attainment (1). Efficacy beliefs influence the following factors: course of actions, efforts, and perseverance in face of obstacles and failures, resilience to adversity, stress and depression in taxing situations, and level of accomplishment (1).

Parenting self-efficacy is defined as a feeling of competence in the caregiving role (2). Teti et al defined Maternal self efficacy as a mother's judgment of how well she can function as a care giver and how she can address specific tasks or challenges related to the parenting role (3).

Over the course of the last several decades, a considerable amount of research attention has been devoted to understanding subjective experiences of parenting. The primary goal of this effort has been to identify key parental cognitions associated with successful personal adjustment in adapting the parental role and positive parenting practice. Early work in this Over the course of the last several decades, a considerable amount of research attention has been devoted to understanding subjective experiences of parenting. The primary goal of this effort has been to identify key parental cognitions associated with successful personal adjustment in adapting the parental role and positive parenting practice. Early work in this area revealed that women who were able to readily visualize themselves as mothers during pregnancy experienced more successful postpartum adjustments, felt more satisfied with parenting, and exhibited more positive parenting behaviors compared to women who had difficulty doing so. (4,5). Additional longitudinal work has suggested that visualization of oneself as a mother, the beliefs that one possesses, the personal characteristics necessary to become a good parent, and confidence in one's future parenting skills measured late in pregnancy could predict such self-definitions after the child birth (6) as well as various parent-child and child outcomes (7,8). …

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