Promoting a Mastery Motivational Climate in a Higher Education Sports Class
Morgan, Kevin; Kingston, Kieran, Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sports and Tourism Education
The lecturer can aim to develop a motivational climate that could strongly influence the degree to which students perceive mastery of the tasks or outperforming others as important. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of an intervention programme to promote a mastery motivational climate on lecturing behaviours and student learning experiences in an undergraduate practical soccer module. As a consequence of the intervention, observational analysis of lecturer behaviours showed increases in student-set mastery goals, greater differentiation of tasks, increased lecturer feedback on effort and progress to individual students, and more flexible time to learn. Group interviews with students revealed that the mastery programme had a positive impact on their motivation and learning experiences.
Keywords: task; authority; recognition; grouping; evaluation; target; TARGET
According to achievement goal theory (AGT) (Nicholls, 1984, 1989), in achievement situations the goal of participants is to demonstrate competence or avoid demonstrating incompetence. Competence, however, can be construed in a number of ways, for example, outperforming others (ego-involved goal), or improving one's own learning and mastering the demands of the task (mastery-involved goal) (Ames, 1992a). According to Roberts (2001) these conceptions of competence are determined by both dispositional and situational factors.
While much of the research into AGT has focused on individual differences in dispositional goal orientations (tendencies to be task or ego involved in achievement settings) and associated patterns of cognition and affect (Dweck, 1986; Dweck & Leggett, 1988; Nicholls, 1984, 1989), some has considered how the structure and demands of the learning environment (referred to as the motivational climate) can evoke different achievement goals and motivational patterns (Ames, 1984, 1992a, 1992b; Ames & Archer, 1988). The premise of this research adopting a situational perspective is that individuals' perceptions of the motivational climate determine their goals and subsequent motivational responses (Treasure, 2001). Motivational climate is, therefore, defined as a situationally induced psychological environment directing goals of action (Ames, 1992a).
In school physical education (PE) and youth sport settings, adaptive learning and motivational patterns; for example, a positive attitude towards the activity, feelings of satisfaction, high perceptions of ability, the choice of challenging tasks, high intrinsic motivation, and placing a high value on effort and the process of learning; have been consistently associated with perceptions of a mastery climate (e.g., Carpenter & Morgan, 1999; Goudas & Biddle, 1994; Treasure, 1997). In contrast, a perceived ego climate has been linked to less adaptive cognitive and affective responses, such as boredom, beliefs that ability rather than effort leads to success, a lack of enjoyment, and a negative attitude toward the subject matter (e.g., Carpenter & Morgan, 1999; Ommundsen & Roberts, 1999; Treasure, 1997).
Epstein (1989) identified the task, authority, recognition, grouping, evaluation, and time structures (TARGET) as influential in determining motivation in school and home environments. Later, Ames (1992a) adopted the TARGET acronym to encapsulate the structures that foster a mastery motivational climate in achievement situations.
According to Ames, to foster a mastery teaching environment the task structure should involve: (a) students in setting their own personal goals focused on self-referenced improvement, (b) multiple activities in order to reduce the opportunity for normative comparisons of ability, and (c) tasks which are differentiated to optimally challenge all students. The authority structure should encourage students to be involved in decision making and leadership roles. Recognition and …
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Publication information: Article title: Promoting a Mastery Motivational Climate in a Higher Education Sports Class. Contributors: Morgan, Kevin; Kingston, Kieran - Author. Journal title: Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sports and Tourism Education. Volume: 9. Issue: 1 Publication date: April 2010. Page number: 73+. © OXFORD BROOKES UNIVERSITY Apr 2010. Provided by ProQuest LLC. All Rights Reserved.
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