Confirmatory Factorial Analysis of the Brazilian Version of the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2)

By Coelho, Eduarda Maria; Vasconcelos-Raposo, José et al. | The Spanish Journal of Psychology, January 1, 2010 | Go to article overview

Confirmatory Factorial Analysis of the Brazilian Version of the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2)


Coelho, Eduarda Maria, Vasconcelos-Raposo, José, Mahl, Álvaro Cielo, The Spanish Journal of Psychology


The aim of this study was to assess the factorial structure of the Brazilian version of CSAI-2, using several structures suggested in previous studies. Two samples consisted of Brazilian soccer players, 266 from regional level (age 22.87 ± 4.08 years; athletic experience 11.32 ± 4.15 years) and 263 from national level (age 23.16 ± 4.37 years; athletic experience 11.11 ± 4.78 years) were used. The CSAI-2 is a 27-item inventory that measures negativism, physiological activation and self-confidence in a competitive setting. The results of CFA according to the original structure showed some inadequacy of the model. The model proposed by Cox, Martens, Russell (2003), composed of three factors (17-item), demonstrated better adjustment to the regional level sample (χ2/df = 1.871, CFI = .934, GFI = .916, RMSEA = .057), while the model suggested by Coelho, Vasconcelos-Raposo, Fernandes (2007), composed of two factors (18-item), adapted better to the national level sample (χ2/df = 1.701, CFI = .924, GFI = .914, RMSEA = .052). When we analyzed the two samples together, Coelho et al. (2007) was the better model, because it displayed greater invariance. The use of this model was suggested in the assessment of intensity of negative thoughts and the subsequent confirmation of its psychometric properties is recommended.

Keywords: CSAI-2, confirmatory factorial analysis, Brazil.

El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la estructura factorial de la version brasilena del CSAI-2, utilizando las estructuras sugeridas en estudios anteriores. Participaron dos muestras de jugadores de futbol de Brasil, 266 de nivel regional (edad media = 22,87 ± 4.08 anos y experiencia deportiva media = 11,32 ± 4,15 anos) y 263 del nivel nacional (edad media = 23,16 ± 4,37 anos; experiencia deportiva media = 11,11 ± 4,78 anos). El CSAI-2 es un cuestionario compuesto por 27 items que miden la negatividad, la activacion fisiologica y la auto-confianza en un entorno competitivo. Los resultados del AFC de acuerdo a la estructura original mostraron algunos desajustes del modelo. El modelo propuesto por Cox, Martens y Russell (2003), compuesto de tres factores (17 items), demostro un mejor ajuste en la muestra de nivel regional (χ2/df = 1,871, CFI = 0,934, GFI = 0,916, RMSEA = 0,057) , mientras que el modelo propuesto por Coelho, Vasconcelos-Raposo y Fernandes (2007), compuesto por dos factores (18 items), se ajusto mejor en la muestra de nivel nacional (χ2/df = 1,701, CFI = 0,924, GFI = 0,914, RMSEA = 0,052). Cuando analizamos las dos muestras juntas, el modelo de Coelho et al. (2007) resulto ser mejor, ya que mostro una mayor invarianza. Se sugiere el uso de este modelo en la evaluacion de la intensidad de los pensamientos negativos, a la vez que se recomienda la confirmacion ulterior de sus propiedades psicometricas.

Palabras clave: CSAI-2, analisis factorial confirmatorio, Brasil

Initially, the concept of anxiety was proposed to diagnose mental pathology (Vasconcelos-Raposo, 1994, 2000), being popularized in the context of sports with the work of Martens (1977), with the objective of evaluating and explaining the emotional state that athletes experiences prior to competition.

Various authors contest the manner in which the term "anxiety" has been used in the athletic context, stating that the negative connotation that it holds may cause the erroneous understanding that anxiety is harmful to performance (Jones & Hanton, 2001; Jones & Swain, 1992). Jones and Swain (1992) suggest that when anxiety is interpreted by athletes as a benefit to performance, this positive emotional state should be called "excitation, activation, or motivation". Taylor (1996) recommends the term "intensity", since this is seen by athletes as contributing to optimal athletic performance.

Recently, Vasconcelos-Raposo (2000) also proposed that the concept of anxiety be rejected, and that a reclassification of the emotional state experienced by athletes in the sports context be conducted, since it is contradictory to the manner in which the term is used by clinical psychology. …

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