The Effects of Lighting Quality on Visual Perception at Sports Events: A Managerial Perspective

By Hsu, Chin-Hsien | International Journal of Management, December 2010 | Go to article overview

The Effects of Lighting Quality on Visual Perception at Sports Events: A Managerial Perspective


Hsu, Chin-Hsien, International Journal of Management


This study examines the effects lighting quality on spectator visual perception, based on the principles of sports lighting and environmental psychology. The subjects of this study were 260 spectators of the World Games in-line hockey competition (aged 15-60). According to the study results from stage 1, the lighting of the in-line hockey rink at I-Shou University (the World Games 2009 venue for in-line hockey) did not meet international standards. Additionally, an analysis of the structural equation modeling in stage 2 showed that poor lighting quality impaired the quality of the visual perceptions of spectators. Implications of the results for managers improving lighting at sports events to enhance the potential enjoyment of spectators are developed

Introduction

The quality and quantity of lighting at sporting venues affects competition as well as the safety of both the athletes and spectators. Moreover, the design and quality of lighting at sporting venues may have an effect on the country 's image when that country hosts international events. For instance, one of the events of the FIFA Futsal World Championship, Taipei, 2004, was suspended for half an hour due to a circuit breaker that was tripped at the National Taiwan University, an event which resulted in negative media feedback. Thus, lighting is a key element in the construction of sporting venues. It should conform to international standards in order to meet the requirements of safety, technical specification, economy, and energy conservation (Tsai Chang-Chi, 1983).

Well-designed lighting can relieve strain on the eyes, speed up the recognition of objects, lengthen visual durability, improve sporting quality, and prevent injuries and accidents during exercises or competitions (Tung Chih-Kangl993). Therefore, sporting venues with comprehensive lighting quality can ensure the physical safety of athletes and spectators. This analyzes the lighting quality of sporting facilities and its effects on spectator visual perception in order to suggest practical steps managers can take to improve the situation

The purpose of designing lighting is to provide appropriate illuminance, color temperature, and lighting to meet the physical and psychological requirements of the user's vision. Different lighting conditions result in varying different visual psychological perceptions that can affect the 'atmosphere' at sports events (Sung Ping-Sheng, 2001). The lighting of a facility is a key issue for research conducted into the dimensions and peripheral equipment of sporting venues. Proper design aims to control the brightness and illuminance of a subject (a ball or person) to create an optimum lighting environment where the subject is presented clearly in front of both the live spectators and television viewer (Shanghai Sports, 2000). A number of specific aspects for of lighting research have been suggested (Tung Chih-Kang, 1993), such as the angle and height of sports lighting, the !luminance of sports lighting, the uniformity of sports lighting, the intensity of sport lighting, and finally the selection of lighting for sports events.

Before examining visual perception, environmental perception needs to be understood first, given that the former is an instance of the latter. The perception process is at the core of environmental behavior as it is the source of all environmental messages. The environment may stimulate the senses and provide more messages to individuals than they can process effectively. BeIk (1 975) pointed out that it is difficult to 6 separate ' individuals from their environment during the perception process because they are interactive and the perception of individuals is affected by their environment. In perception studies, psychologists tend to focus on object perception instead of perception as regards the general environment and its importance to individuals, which some aigue is more obvious and important (Mehrabian& Russell, 1974). …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

The Effects of Lighting Quality on Visual Perception at Sports Events: A Managerial Perspective
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.