Gender and Leadership Style as Socio-Demographic Indicators of Job Satisfaction in Akwa Ibom State Civil Service
Ottu, Iboro F A, Nkenchor, Chukwuma Timothy, Gender & Behaviour
The influence of Gender and Leadership Style on job satisfaction was investigated using two hundred (200) Civil Servants made up of 100 (males) and 100 (females) randomly selected from the population of civil servants in various Ministries of Akwa Ibom State Civil Service. The mean age of the participants was 37.53 years. The participants were randomized into two treatment conditions of Gender (Male and Female) and Leadership style (Democratic and Autocratic styles). Two instruments used were, the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) and the Least Preferred Co-Worker (LPC)' scale. The design of the study was a 2 x 2 randomized factorial design. Results of ANOVA showed a no statistically significant difference on the level of job satisfaction between males and females [F(1,196) = 0.02; pns]. Females were not markedly different from males in their satisfaction on the job. On the other hand there was a statistically significant difference between employees under the democratic style of leadership and their autocratic style of leadership counterparts. (F(1,196), = 10.65, P<.01). The democratic style of leadership employees were more satisfied with their jobs than the autocratic style of leadership employees. There was no significant interaction effect. The results of the analysis were discussed in line with previous and relevant findings. The practical implications of the findings and their limitations were also discussed.
A growing and burgeoning interest has developed in the past decades in the area of job satisfaction in Nigeria. Job satisfaction is an affective or emotional response towards various facets of one's job (Kreitner & Kinicki, 2001). Several studies on job satisfaction and other workers' job related concerns usually focus on factors such as gender, marital status and length of service (Awosika, 2004) leadership style (Moses, 2002; Bankole, 2002) Coworker relational maintenance (Sias, Krone, and Jablin, 2002) organizational politics (Shenge, 2007) work role and workplace preference (Mannheim, 1983) and absenteeism (Onakoya, 2007; Iverson & Deery, 2001) among others. Earlier, Eneasator (1990) found that there has been a general dissatisfaction with jobs in Nigeria. Though most problems of job satisfaction in Nigeria generally regenerate from issues bordering on motivation, the delicate areas of gender influence and supervisory leadership style seem to be outstandingly topical due to gender-based restrictions and segregation as well as unexemplary and/ or high/low-handed leadership in the workplace. While gender-based problems of job satisfaction are found in discriminating policies in worksites, leadership problems emanate from quality of supervision and, ofcourse, organizational politics and distributive justice perceived by workers.
Though there is a dearth of published empirical studies on job satisfaction in Nigeria, the few studies have shown that both intrinsic and extrinsic aspects of work (i.e. achievement, recognition, responsibility, advancement, supervision and promotion) have been grossly neglected and are often the cause of low morale and low productivity among workers.
Off the shores of Nigeria, studies on job satisfaction have been diverse and consistent. For example, in the leadership realm, Garland and McCarty (2010) while studying the rating of their boss in terms of quality of supervision by prison healthcare staff in the United States Penal System, reported that several work-related variables (Efficacy, Age, Gender, Education, etc.) significantly affected the ratings of supervision by healthcare staff. The results of this model indicated that efficacy in dealing with inmates was a positive and statistically significant predictor of perceptions of supervision and therefore job satisfaction. Earlier, Garland, McCarty and Zhao (2009) had used the prison social climate survey to examine job satisfaction and organizational commitment among psychological, teaching and unit management staff in the United States Federal Prison system and found that more favourable assessments of supervision (leadership) led to greater satisfaction and commitment. …