Forced Migration and HIV/AIDS in Asia: Some Observations

By Sadik, Nafis | Forced Migration Review, October 2010 | Go to article overview

Forced Migration and HIV/AIDS in Asia: Some Observations


Sadik, Nafis, Forced Migration Review


Although most of Asia has not suffered from a generalised HIV epidemic, there is reason to be concerned about how forced migration and economic crisis-related migration may increase the risks.

A thorough discussion of how and why forced migration can increase risks of HIV transmission in the region would require reviewing a myriad of social, cultural, economic and even physiological dynamics. So I will focus on a few issues of particular relevance - HIV in humanitarian settings, security-related programme developments, and the special needs of the millions of Asians who, out of desperation, find themselves exploited and unprotected as labourers in foreign lands.

In my capacity as Special Envoy, I have advocated for stronger prevention, better care, and destigmatisation of HIV/AIDS throughout the region. I have also worked for the recognition that migration within and outside the region plays an important ep id emio logical role and that there must be much greater attention paid to the rights, needs and protection of migrants. Over the past decade, there has been significant progress in HIV awareness and adoption of ever more progressive and effective policies and programmes by many governments. A good example of recent change is the lifting of immigration restrictions based on HIV status by China, setting a good example for other countries.

But there remains much room for improvement when it comes to widespread establishment of effective, rights-based policies and programmes for HIV prevention and care. There are particular needs for more attention to those at risk due to being displaced. There are millions of Asians who have left their homes and areas of origin and are living, often without their families or other social support, in new communities. Many are facing circumstances which make them more vulnerable to contracting HIV while at the same time they have lost access to information and means of prevention.

Over the past decade there has been a great deal of conflict-related displacement in the region. Civil war or insurgencies in Afghanistan, Nepal, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Pakistan, India and the Philippines and across Central Asia have created large numbers of refugees and IDPs who have required humanitarian support. Although HIV prevention, as a part of the minimum package of reproductive health services, was adopted as a critical component of humanitarian response in 19941, resource constraints and social and cultural factors have impeded universal access to information and means of prevention among these populations. (It should also be pointed out that for some people the first information they ever received on HIV was from humanitarian agencies.)

Some types of conflict or displacement have brought much more particular risks of HIV infection. For example, long years of refugee camp life and lack of employment or recreational opportunities have contributed to intravenous drug use in Afghanistan and Pakistan border areas; this is a driving factor in the epidemic in these countries just as it is in Central Asia. The destitution of Burmese refugees in Thailand has led to widespread 'survival sex' which has driven the infection in that sub-region. The sexual violence used as a weapon of war in Timor Leste, Central Asia, Sri Lanka and other conflicts has undoubtedly increased HIV risks. And although it is often not considered an armed political conflict, the horrific levels of social and interpersonal violence in Papua New Guinea are also thought to be important factors in the epidemic there. Throughout the region, there is not only need to ensure that HIV prevention and care services are provided for displaced populations but there is also need for serious analysis of the HIV impact of the conflicts and for the inclusion of the special needs of the displaced in every national AIDs action plan.

The Asian region suffers more natural disasters, especially floods and earthquakes, than any other region in the world. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Forced Migration and HIV/AIDS in Asia: Some Observations
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.