Tutoring Adolescents in Literacy: A Meta-Analysis/prodiguer Du Tutorat En Littérature Aux Adolescents : Une Méta-Analyse

By Jun, Seung Won; Ramirez, Gloria et al. | McGill Journal of Education (Online), Spring 2010 | Go to article overview

Tutoring Adolescents in Literacy: A Meta-Analysis/prodiguer Du Tutorat En Littérature Aux Adolescents : Une Méta-Analyse


Jun, Seung Won, Ramirez, Gloria, Cumming, Alister, McGill Journal of Education (Online)


ABSTRACT. What does research reveal about tutoring adolescents in literacy? We conducted a meta-analysis, identifying 152 published studies, of which 12 met rigorous inclusion criteria. We analyzed the 12 studies for the effects of tutoring according to the type, focus, and amount of tutoring; the number, age, and language background of students; and the quality of the research. Despite variability, these studies suggest benefits, notably for cross-age tutoring, reading, and small tutoring programs of lengthy duration.

PRORODIGUER DU TUTORAT EN LITTÉRATURE AUX ADOLESCENTS : UNE MÉTA-ANALYSE

RÉSUMÉ. Qu'est-ce que la recherche nous apprend sur le tutorat en littératie auprès des adolescents? Nous avons mené une méta-analyse, relevant 152 études publiées, parmi lesquelles 12 rencontraient des critères rigoureux d'inclusion. Nous avons donc analysé ces 12 études, examinant les effets du tutorat non seulement selon son type, ses objectifs et sa quantité mais également selon le nombre, l'âge et le profil langagier des élèves. La qualité des travaux de recherche a aussi été prise en considération. Ainsi, malgré une certaine variabilité, ses études suggèrent des bénéfices aux initiatives de tutorat, particulièrement le tutorat inter-âge, les programmes de lecture et les programmes de taille modeste, de longue durée.

Among the many forms of mentoring, one-to-one tutoring may be the most longstanding, conventional, and widely practiced supplement to traditional classroom-based education (Fashola, 2001; Shanahan, 1998). Much research has investigated the benefits of tutoring, particularly for reading but also other school subjects, during the initial years of schooling. Numerous reviews and meta-analyses have synthesized the research on tutoring in elementary schools, establishing clearly its effectiveness: most recently, Ritter, Barnett, Denny and Albin (2009) but also D'Agostino and Murphy (2004), Elbaum, Vaughn, Hughes and Moody (2000), Shanahan (1998), Topping and Hill (1995) and Wasik (1998).

As the National Reading Panel (2000) in the U.S. concluded, early intervention is more effective than remediation later in school. So educators have sought ways to identify young students at risk when there is still time to provide them focused, relevant interventions. Tutoring is generally considered among the most powerful forms of intervention, particularly for increasing the reading achievement of students at risk for academic failure (Burns, Senesec, & Symington, 2004; Elbaum et al., 2000; Harmon, Keehn, & Kenney, 2004; Wasik & Slavin, 1993). As Baker, Gerten, and Keating (2000) observed, "even the best instructional environments for first graders in a public school setting, with one expert teacher responsible for teaching 20-30 students, cannot match the educational intensity of a one-to-one interaction (p. 494)."

Not even small group instruction is as effective as one-on-one tutoring. Ehri, Dreyer, Flugman, and Gross (2007), for example, showed that one-on-one tutoring, rather than small group instruction, was more effective for teaching reading to struggling readers because tutoring allowed instruction to be tailored to the individual needs of student readers, engaging them in greater, focused reading practice with feedback than was feasible in small groups. Likewise, Juel (1996, pp. 268-282) described the characteristics of tutoring that provide advantages over classroom-based teaching, particularly for literacy: Tutors can engage learners with texts and learning processes for concentrated, lengthy periods of time; focus the attention of young learners; model and scaffold reading and writing processes; and provide immediate, individualized feedback in context and other personalized activities at key moments and repeatedly as may be needed.

As this account suggests, tutoring is not a uniform process. Rather, tutoring operates under variable conditions that may be more or less optimal for student learning. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Tutoring Adolescents in Literacy: A Meta-Analysis/prodiguer Du Tutorat En Littérature Aux Adolescents : Une Méta-Analyse
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.