The Effects of Climate Modes on Growing-Season Length and Timing of Reproduction in the Pacific Nordwest as Revealed by Biophysical Modeling of Lizards

By Zani, Peter A.; Rollyson, Mary E. | The American Midland Naturalist, April 2011 | Go to article overview

The Effects of Climate Modes on Growing-Season Length and Timing of Reproduction in the Pacific Nordwest as Revealed by Biophysical Modeling of Lizards


Zani, Peter A., Rollyson, Mary E., The American Midland Naturalist


ABSTRACT.-

The effects of climate change on environments are increasingly obvious and are leading to stronger and more varied biological responses as organisms compensate. To understand better the responses of terrestrial ectotherms to climate oscillations we created a biophysical model based on the degree-days concept to predict relevant life-history events. By studying side-blotched lizards, Uta stansburiana, we were able to calculate the timing and length of the growing season as well as the timing of the breeding season for this species at a site in the Pacific Northwest based primarily on temperature data. We then used historical meteorological data to test for the effects of short- and long-term fluctuations in climate modes on lizards using indices for the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). Results indicate that these two climate modes affect different aspects of life history and that their effects, either alone or in combination, have the potential to alter not only phenology (e.g., timing of reproduction) but also population recruitment and even persistence. Yet, using these climate modes to predict biological outcomes of future climate change may be difficult to accomplish due to regional variation of their impacts and their inherent complexity.

(ProQuest: ... denotes formulae omitted.)

INTRODUCTION

Ongoing climate change is altering natural environments by changing the timing and length of growing seasons (Sparks and Menzel, 2002; Schwartz et al, 2006), the magnitude of daily minimum and maximum temperatures (DeGaetano, 1996; Easterling et al, 1997; DeGaetano and Allen, 2002), the distribution of precipitation (Groisman et al, 1999; Miller and Goodrich, 2007), or a combination of diese (Easterling et al, 2000a, b; Meehl et al, 2000). These changes in heat and moisture distribution have already begun to evoke ecological and evolutionary responses as organisms track the environment (see Parmesan, 2006). Beyond merely documenting past change, one of the major challenges facing biologists is the prediction of life's responses to future change given the myriad of possible interactions not only between organisms and their environments but also among organisms ( see Travis and Futuyma, 1993). By and large, efforts have focused on modeling blanket changes in the environment such as responses to a warmer world (e.g., Buckley, 2008; Crozier et al, 2008; Li et al, 2009). While there is certainly value in this approach, it may overlook subtle variations in atmospheric and oceanic circulations that give rise to natural dynamical modes, such as the El Niño-Southern Oscillation. However, an increasing number of studies have linked these climate modes to effects on organisms in both aquatic (Jonsson and Jonsson, 2004; Lehodey et al, 2006; Brander, 2007) and terrestrial (Post and Stenseth, 1999; Hallett et al, 2004; Woodward et al, 2008) environments (for reviews see Stenseth et al, 2002; Wang and Schimel, 2003). In this paper, we examine the past impacts of climate modes on a terrestrial ectotherm in the Pacific Northwest of North America in an attempt to understand the effects of future environmental variation.

One well-studied climate mode is the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The ENSO cycle, with a periodicity of 2-7 y, consists of a mass of relatively warm seawater that builds in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean during positive (El Niño) phases of the oscillation, and relatively cold water during negative (La Niña) phases (Rayano et al, 2005). Due to oceanatmospheric teleconnections, the ENSO affects both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems (for reviews see Glynn, 1988; Stenseth et al, 2002; Wang and Schimel, 2003). During strong El Niño events, the Pacific Northwest experiences relatively warm conditions, while the opposite is true during a La Niña event (Woodward et al, 2008). Due to its seasonal timing, the ENSO should advance or delay the onset of spring depending on its phase and potentially impact phenological responses of organisms. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

The Effects of Climate Modes on Growing-Season Length and Timing of Reproduction in the Pacific Nordwest as Revealed by Biophysical Modeling of Lizards
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.