Self-Efficacy and Social Support in African Americans Diagnosed with End Stage Renal Disease

By Wells, Janie R.; Anderson, Staci T. | ABNF Journal, Winter 2011 | Go to article overview

Self-Efficacy and Social Support in African Americans Diagnosed with End Stage Renal Disease


Wells, Janie R., Anderson, Staci T., ABNF Journal


Abstract: The purpose of this descriptive study was to measure levels of self-efficacy and social support beliefs in African Americans diagnosed with End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD). Eighty-five African Americans, age 20 to 86 years old, participated in the study. Forty were males and 45 were females. The General Self-Efficacy Scale was used to determine the overall self-efficacy level of the participants, and the Personal Resource Questionnaire was used to assess perceived social support One sample t-tests revealed that self-efficacy and social support levels were high in African Americans with ESRD. High levels of self-efficacy and social support have the potential to improve health outcomes.

Key Words: Self-Efficacy, Social Support, African American, End Stage Renal Disease, Hemodialysis

End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) is a chronic illness that is very debilitating. Individuals with this disease are faced with having life sustaining hemodialysis treatments that are generally scheduled three times a week, lasting from 3 to 5 hours each session. A large proportion of people affected by this disease have limited lives as a result of the time constraints of treatments. In 2007, over 500,000 Americans received ESRD treatment (United States Renal Data System [USRDS], 2010a), with African Americans having an incidence of ESRD 3.7 times higher than that of Caucasians (USRDS, 2010b). In addition to many other chronic illnesses, African Americans are disproportionately affected by ESRD (National Kidney Foundation, 2010) as well. Thus, African Americans have significant disparities in health outcomes related to ESRD.

Self-management of chronic illnesses, such as ESRD, can be influenced by various biological, behavioral, and social factors which can influence health and adherence (Kammerer, Garry, Hartigan, Carter, & Erlich, 2007). There is a need to explore these factors. The literature has consistently identified self-efficacy and social support as modifiable risk factors that can impact and improve medical adherence and health outcomes (Cohen, Sharma, Acquaviva, Peterson, Patel, & Kimmel, 2007; Hopkins, 2005; Klang, Bjorvell, Berglund, Sundstedt, & Clyne, 1998; Lev & Owen, 1998; Luszczynska, Mohamed & Schwarzer, 2005; Plantinga et al., 2010; Takaki & Yano, 2006).

A belief in one's self-efficacy enhances or limits motivation by influencing the types of goals that individuals set for themselves, the extent of effort they expend, and thenpersistence in the face of difficulties (Gredler, 2005). People tend to avoid activities they feel are beyond their coping capabilities (Bandura, 1995). If one does not believe that their actions will produce a positive outcome, there is little motivation to continue. Self-efficacy beliefs have the potential to improve health outcomes as well as decrease health status.

Social support plays a key role in positive health outcomes. It includes resources offering emotional comfort, physical assistance, and solutions to problems in order to preserve a patient's sense of self-esteem and self-competency (Given & Given, 1989). According to Aday (2001), physical, psychological, and social well-being are directly enhanced for people who have supportive social networks. Those diagnosed with ESRD have many constraints related to their illness that they need strong and positive social ties to overcome them. The purpose of this study was to measure levels of self-efficacy and social support beliefs in African Americans diagnosed with ESRD who were undergoing hemodialysis.

BACKGROUND

Self-Efficacy

Several studies have shown that self-efficacy beliefs influence aspects of care related to patients with ESRD. Self-efficacy beliefs have been shown to influence personal growth, acceptance of life's imperfections, sensitivity to others (Luszcynska et al., 2005), health locus of control (Takaki & Yano, 2006), self care behaviors (Wu, Courtney, Edwards, McDowell, Shortridge-Baggett, & Chang, 2007), and fluid adherence (Tsay, 2003; Yokoyama et al. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Self-Efficacy and Social Support in African Americans Diagnosed with End Stage Renal Disease
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.