Impact of Gender and Opportunity Recognition on Attitude to Piracy of Computer Industry Products

By Okurame, David E; Ogunfowora, A S | Gender & Behaviour, June 2011 | Go to article overview
Save to active project

Impact of Gender and Opportunity Recognition on Attitude to Piracy of Computer Industry Products

Okurame, David E, Ogunfowora, A S, Gender & Behaviour


Software piracy has defied punitive measures, posing threats to jobs of millions of employees and the computer industry. The study proposed an attitudinal approach to the wide-reaching problem and examines the variance explained by gender and opportunity recognition in attitude to piracy of software products. It utilized a correlational design in a survey of two hundred and forty students in an institution of higher learning located in southwestern Nigeria. Results indicate that opportunity recognition and attitudes toward software piracy have a significant positive relationship = .18, p < .01). Opportunity recognition accounted for 3.5 percent (p = < .01) of the variance in attitudes toward software piracy, indicating that it favourably disposes an individual to software piracy. Contrary to hypothesis, gender was not significantly related to attitudes toward software piracy = .06, n.s.). Practical implications of findings and future research directions are discussed.

Key words: Gender; opportunity recognition; attitudes to software piracy; computer industry; Nigeria.


Software piracy has been described as the unauthorized duplication, reuse and /or distribution of copyrighted computer programmes (Higgins, 2006; Dupin-Bryant, 2010). This includes software that is stored on hard drives, floppy disks, CD-ROMS, and the internet as well as software on personal computers (Higgins, 2006). It is a form of white-collar crime that has assumed an alarming proportion due to wide spread access to computers, mobile communication and the internet (Hagan & Kay, 1990; Motivans, 2004). An appreciation of the negative effects of software piracy on the computer industry and their employees, and the society at large has brought to the fore a need to focus on all dimensions to the problem. The government has assisted the situation by enacting laws that stipulates stiff penalties for the infringement of copyright. Organizations in the industry have licensed their software products and have engaged in enlightenment, surveillance and prosecution of violators of their copyright. In addition, some have incorporated anti-copying devices to their products, offered free auditing software to detect pirated copies and published punishment for violation of their copyright (Peace, Gallettea & Thong, 2003).

Despite the stiff penalties for infringement, piracy behaviour has continued unabated (Moinul, 2010). The ease with which software can be copied without permission has made it difficult to detect and to enforce piracy laws (Peace et al, 2003). As such, the problem has continued to hurt many software businesses costing the industry a fortune in lost revenue, diminishing incentive to sustain innovative production and causing the retrenchment of thousands of computer industry workers (Peace et al, 2003; Dupin-Bryant, 2010). The phenomenon has equally been a particularly harrowing experience for employees in the software industry: they are constantly in fear of losing their jobs - the employment of a conservative estimate of 1 million workers is threatened at every point in time. For this reason alone, software piracy should be a major source of concern to an organizational psychologist and a keen enthusiast of employee well-being and the survival of the software industry.

Although all hands appear to be on deck in solving the piracy problem, there is a dimension that seems not to be receiving the desired attention. This is attitudes to software piracy. The importance of examining software piracy attitudes is underscored by two reasons. First, and to reiterate, stiff penalties have not stopped piracy of software products (Moinul, 2010). Second, researchers (e.g. DupinBryant, 2010) have suggested that other alternative ways of preventing infringement of intellectual property should be explored to help the situation. One alternative method is to understand attitudes to software piracy (Goles, Jayatilaka, George, Parsons, Chambers, Taylor, & Brune, 2008; Phau & Ng, 2010).

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
Loading One moment ...
Project items
Cite this article

Cited article

Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

Cited article

Impact of Gender and Opportunity Recognition on Attitude to Piracy of Computer Industry Products


Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

While we understand printed pages are helpful to our users, this limitation is necessary to help protect our publishers' copyrighted material and prevent its unlawful distribution. We are sorry for any inconvenience.
Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.

Are you sure you want to delete this highlight?