Agriculture in the Canada-EU Economic and Trade Agreement

By Viju, Crina; Kerr, William A. | International Journal, Summer 2011 | Go to article overview

Agriculture in the Canada-EU Economic and Trade Agreement


Viju, Crina, Kerr, William A., International Journal


According to article 24 of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), preferential trade arrangements (custom unions) and free trade areas are allowed by the World Trade Organization (WTO). The GATT requires that these agreements cover substantially all trade and that existing external tariffs should not be raised by the countries concluding free trade agreements. Article 24 of GATT stipulates that:

A free-trade area shall be understood to mean a group of two or more customs territories in which the duties and other restrictive regulations of commerce.. .are eliminated on substantially all the trade between the constituent territories in products originating in such territories.1

Unfortunately, the prescriptions of article 24 requiring substantially all trade to be covered by a free trade area have never been enforced, and in fact, what "substantially all trade" means has never been defined.2 As a result, many free trade agreements have often excluded sensitive sectors like agriculture but those agreements have still been accepted by the GATT With an eye to article 24, Canada's chief negotiator for the Canada-EU agreement, Steve Verheul, has stated that "we have agreed from the start everything is on the table."3 Thus, one major objective of this article is to assess the major challenges that the Canada-EU negotiators will face in tackling the entrenched agricultural trade barriers that exist on both sides of the Atlantic.

In October 2008, Prime Minister Stephen Harper of Canada and President Nicolas Sarkozy of France confirmed during the Canada-EU summit that Canada and the EU would explore the possibility ofa free trade agreement. A few months later, in May 2009, the launch of the negotiations for a comprehensive economic and trade agreement (CETA) was announced. The negotiations are expected to take two and a half years to complete. The first round of talks was held in October 2009, followed by further discussions in January, April, July, and October 2010, and January, April, and July 2011. After seven rounds of negotiations, Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada indicated that significant progress had been achieved in several sectors, such as goods, services, investment, and government procurement, and that the electronic commerce chapter had been dosed.4 Less progress had been made on other areas, including agriculture.

In October 2008, Canada and the EU released a joint study, "Assessing the costs and benefits ofa closer EU-Canada economic partnership," which outlines the economic benefits that could arise from closer economic integration, namely that GDP in Europe would increase by 0.08 percent and in Canada by 0.77 percent.5 This study is the source of the estimated $12 billion benefit to Canada that is often mentioned in news reports. Canada and the EU have agreed that the major areas for negotiation are trade in goods and services, investment, government procurement, regulatory cooperation, intellectual property, temporary entry of business persons, competition policy, labour, and the environment.6 The results of these types of economic-impact studies should be interpreted with caution as the assessments are completed in isolation from all other factors and subject to important assumptions. For example, one of the basic assumptions of this study is that Doha round of WTO negotiations would be completed and successful. Also, the study was completed before the global financial and economic crises. Thus it provides only an indication of possible impacts on the participating countries, subject to different assumptions and no change in the external factors.

The attempt to create closer economic cooperation between Canada and the EU has been given a boost by three factors. First is the glacial pace of the Doha development agenda at the WTO. The long and inconclusive multilateral trade negotiations have resulted in an increased interest in regional trade agreements. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Agriculture in the Canada-EU Economic and Trade Agreement
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.