Channel Structure and Conflict Management among Multinational Corporations (MNCs) in Ghana
Mahmoud, Mohammed Abdulai, Hinson, Robert Ebo, Anning-Dorson, Thomas, International Management Review
The research seeks to gain qualitative insights into channel structure and conflict management of leading multinational companies operating in Ghana. A case-study approach was adopted for this study. Data was gathered and analyzed qualitatively through interviews of managers of five multinational firms in Ghana. The companies were found to be practicing a three-level channel system, a combination of exclusive and intensive distribution strategies and a partial integration, thus limiting their control of the chain of distribution. The managements of the case companies have adopted some measures to mitigate the conflict-prone zones, which, in most cases, are not yielding the desired result of consolidating their channel operations. This research may have limited generalizability to all multinationals. The major contribution of this paper is that it helps in drawing out key issues of channel structure and conflict management in a developing economy context.
[Keywords] multinational; Ghana; channel; structure; distribution and conflict
Scholars in marketing and management postulate that the field of marketing channels research is currently in a state of evolution with little agreement as to how to frame issues and what the appropriate modes of enquiry are (Gundlach, et al., 2006; Kotler & Keller, 2009). They further intimate that the evolving nature of this research domain presents both opportunities and challenges for further scholarship in the area. On one hand, it gives researchers the freedom to explore the area for better alternatives. On the other hand, the differing alternatives in terms of perspectives and methods has made it more difficult to achieve a consensus and thus to accumulate findings that yield robust generalization concerning this important phenomenon (Mahmoud, et al, 2010). Despite these multiple perspectives and approaches, some scholars indicate that research appears to converge with some agreement in findings and explanations about what issues in marketing channels warrant further inquiry (Gundlach, et al., 2006).
Marketing practitioners and academics have focused on aspects of marketing, such as product, price, and promotion to the detriment of channel management (Kotier & Armstrong, 2006). Choosing the right distribution channel to move products or services to the end user is a long-term strategic decision and varies according to the product, service, and market (Coughlan, et al., 2006). When choosing a distribution strategy, a marketer must determine what value a channel member adds to the firm's products and/or service. A vital determinant of the structure of marketing channels is the type of middlemen (Luk, 1997) that operate it. Bowersox, et al. (1980) hold that marketing channels are structured according to the availability and willingness of channel institutions to perform the marketing functions necessary to satisfy the target market's desire for channel service.
No matter how well channels are designed and managed, there will be some conflict because the interests of independent business entities do not always coincide (Kotier, 2004; Gundlach, et al., 2006; Mahmoud, et al., 2010). Several types of conflicts have been identified and dealt with in the extant literature, and these include vertical, horizontal, and multi-channel conflicts. It is important to observe that distribution management research has focused on developed economy context (Gundlach, et al., 2006) and rapidly industrializing and emerging economies like the BRIC (Luk, 1997), but there is a stark paucity of distribution management studies related to African emerging country contexts. As MNCs try to reach emerging economies with their products and services, it, therefore, serves as a confirmation that the developing contexts are theoretically and managerially relevant to both marketing scholars and practitioners. As the marketing channels research space evolves (Gundlach, et al., 2006), this study contributes to the debate by providing emerging markets perspectives through a qualitative study of multinational companies' distribution operations.
The study seeks to understand how multinational corporations (MNCs) design distribution channels, potential sources of conflicts of such distribution channels and its management in their host country (Ghana). The paper is structured as follows: the first section deals with introductory discussions of channel structure and conflict. The second section provides the literature base of the paper. The third section of the paper describes the methodology adopted for the study, while the fourth section presents brief profiles of the MNCs. The fifth section presents the discussions of findings, while the sixth focuses on implications of the findings. Future research directions and conclusions are presented in section seven.
A well-chosen channel is necessary because it constitutes a significant competitive advantage, and it is designed to save costs, improve and increase efficiency, provide regular transactions, provide a larger customer base, and allow businesses to focus on other aspects of the organization (Menkhaus, et al., 2004). Designing a good distribution channel is fundamental to good marketing. Within the distribution channel is the ability to use intermediaries to strategically market a product or service (Clarke, 2000). Distribution tends to be one of the most immutable of the marketing mix decisions, but a number of external factors have led to an increase in its importance, namely, pressures on competitive advantage, the increased power of distributors, pressure to reduce distribution costs, a new stress on growth, and new technological developments (Coelho & Easingwood, 2003).
Marketing channels are typically composed of multiple companies, each pursuing its own interests, and because these interests are competing, channel members often fail to cooperate with each other and, sometimes, even work at cross-purposes. The main function of a distribution channel is to provide a link between production and consumption. Kotier and Keller (2009) view the alternative channel arrangement as being a zero-level, a one-level, a two-level, a three-level channel and so on, depending on the number of intermediaries involved in delivering the product to final consumer. These alternative channel arrangements could be based on the conventional marketing channel system (CMCS) or vertical marketing system (VMS) depending on the level of desire to control channel behavior. The CMCS is a channel arrangement where no channel member has absolute or substantial control over other members, whereas in the VMS the members act as unified system and, as such, a strong member attempt to exert control over other channel members' behavior (Kotier & Keller, 2009).
Three approaches are available to companies to decide on the number of intermediaries to use at each channel level (Jobber, 2001). Intensive distribution is at one end of the scale where the policy is to distribute to as many outlets as possible (Jobber, 2001). Extensive distribution, on the other hand, is at the other end of the scale where the policy is to distribute to only one intermediary at a given level in a given geographical area. In exclusive distribution, the producer severely limits the number of intermediaries. This is done in order to maintain control over the service level and service outputs offered by the resellers (Kotier, 2004).
Channel conflict occurs when one member's actions prevent another channel from achieving its goal. Channel conflict is defined by Coughlan, et al. (2006) as the behavior by a channel member that opposes its counterpart. Brown and Day (1981) affirm that conflict is an inherent aspect of interdependence relationships in distribution channels. Kotier and Keller (2009) and Jobber (2001) outline the major sources of channel conflict as differences in goals, differences in desired product lines, multiple distribution channels, and inadequacies in performance. Lusch (1982) identified three underlying sources of conflict in channel relationships as follows: perceptual incongruity, goal incompatibility, and lack of domain consensus. Scholars generally have proposed a number of measures firms can adopt to manage channel conflicts, which includes adoption of superordinate goals, exchange of employees, joint membership in trade associations, cooptation, diplomacy, mediation, regular and mutual communication, arbitration, and legal recourse (Kotier & Keller, 2009; McDonald, 1999). The best way of avoiding and preventing conflict is to keep a regular and communication and a close collaboration, and Holmvall (1995) warns that if problems arise in the collaboration, it is crucial that the companies involved inform the intermediary in order to find an immediate solution. The extant literature review presents different opinions on distribution structural arrangement, as well as different strategies that multinationals adopt in managing conflict. The purpose of this review was not to dispute the previous scholars understanding and analysis on these issues but rather to serve as a foundation to make further inquiries and build on the empirical body of knowledge on distribution of multinationals. To guide this current study, three research questions regarding physical distribution emerging from the literature review are posited as follows:
RQl: How do the case companies organize their distribution channel?
RQ2: What are the sources of conflict in the distribution system?
RQ3: How are the conflicts managed?
A qualitative approach was adopted for this study. According to Chisnall (1997), the findings of a qualitative research approach cannot provide statistical evidence but can provide unique insights to inspire and guide the development of marketing strategy and tactics. The qualitative approach was, therefore, appropriate for the study, since the purpose of the study was to gain a deeper understanding of how the case companies organize their distribution channel with its attendant conflicts. Yin (1994) suggests that a major strength of case study research is the opportunity to access various sources of evidence. Yin (2003) outlined five research strategies that can be used to collect data. They are experiments, case studies, surveys, archival analysis, and histories. Among the five, a multiple-case study design was adopted for this study. Although critics believe that the study of a small number of cases can offer no grounds for establishing reliability and generality of findings, advocates of the case study method have indicated that case studies provide a depth and richness of description that are indispensable to the social sciences (Stake, 1995).
Data for the study was gathered qualitatively and an interview guide served as a tool to collect the data. The interview guide was formulated based on the extant literature to solicit information on the case companies' distribution channel structure and conflict sources and management. At least two key informants were used in each case based on their key positions and their knowledge on distribution process of the companies. Overall, 14 key informants participated in the interview, which compared favorably with previous studies (Sen, 2006). For better analysis of issues of distribution systems of the case companies, all the interviewees had spent at least three years in their respective positions and at least four years with their respective companies and were, therefore, deemed competent on commenting on the issues at hand. The researchers visited the case companies over a three-week period due to the time schedules of the managers.
There were five MNCs, which are referred to as Case 1, Case 2, Case 3, Case 4 and Case 5 companies in this study for reasons of anonymity. We do not reveal the identities of the case companies in this paper, and this is in conformance with prior research (Roper, 2005; Hingley, 2005). All the interviews lasted between 30 to 40 minutes due to the necessary follow-ups that came up outside of the semistructured interview guide sent to the interviewees earlier through their mails.
The interviews were recorded with an ICD P-520 Sony recorder and later transcribed through a series of playbacks in order to appreciate the distribution system and conflict management practices of the multinational companies. According to Saunders and Thornhill (2000), validity is said to be concerned with whether the findings are really about what they appear to be about. By ensuring validity of this study, the researchers made sure that they interviewed key informants competent in answering the questions. These informants are involved in the decision-making process of the company and had been with the organization for a considerable number of years, as earlier indicated. According to Yin (2003), two prerequisites for allowing another investigator to repeat an earlier case study is to document the procedures and to develop a case study database. The present study fulfills the above prerequisites, since the stages in the study have been well documented. This was done by designing an interview guide and making sure that the interview conducted was recorded. To fulfill a recommendation of an initial investigation of this issue, which appeared in the conference proceedings of International Academy of African Business and Development (LAABD, 2010) (Mahmoud, et al., 2010), five multinationals operating in Ghana were conveniently sampled to further examine the issues on multinational channel design and conflict prone zones and their management.
* Case 1 is a merger of two giant companies operating in different markets from pharmaceuticals to nutrition products. In Ghana, all of its brands are household names and command huge market shares in their respective markets.
* Case 2 is a pharmaceutical company, which has its factory in Accra, where the products are distributed to the West African Sub-region for onward distribution to retailers.
* Case 3 is a beverage bottling company that operates as one of the largest multinational companies with a market share of 95%.
* Case 4 used to operate a conglomerate of food and beverages until 2002, when it divested into a full beverage company producing premium alcoholic beverages.
* Case 5 serves the insecticide market and has operated in Ghana for over 50 and also operates in Africa, Europe, and America with its headquarters in the US.
Findings and Discussion
Findings within Cases
The results and discussions are presented concurrently in this study. This is done in line with the three research questions set out after the extant review of the scientific literature on channel design, sources of conflicts, and its management. The presentation focuses on individuals' multinationals stories of the research issues in a chronological manner before a comparative analysis is carried out in the next section to ascertain the similarities and differences in channel design, sources, and management of conflicts of the cases involved in this particularly study.
Case 1 has the distribution service department, which works hand in hand with the sales and marketing team to distribute through wholesalers and retailers to the final consumers and has three-level distribution structure. The products pass through the distribution partners through wholesalers and retailers to the final consumers. However, Case 1 equally distributes directly to wholesalers and retailers, but not final consumers. Similarly, Case 2 has a three-level distribution channel structure consisting of a distributor, 187 wholesalers, 326 retailers, and 30 institutional buyers. The company allows both wholesalers and retailers to buy directly from various sales outlets and depots without price discrimination.
Case 3 has two types of distribution channels: direct distribution where the company's 97 trucks move throughout the country to supply retailers and indirect distribution where distributors (150) are used through retailers to final consumers. However, the company has another distribution channel under direct distribution system known as "preseli, " where they bypass their distributors and deal directly with large customers. The company operates exclusive distributorship based on territories. Case 4, on the other hand, has three main intermediaries, which include the key distributors, wholesalers, and retailers. The company does not trade directly with any of the intermediaries except key distributors. Case 5 operates a three-level distribution channel system consisting of 11 key distributors, wholesalers, large retailers like the multinational retail chains, and final consumers or institutional buyers (the hotels, hospitals, educational institutions etc.). The company distributes directly with the distributors, large retailers and institutional buyers but not wholesalers in the chain.
Sources of Conflicts
The Commercial Manager (CM) of Case 1 summed up the sources of conflicts as '''...first, longer credit period which we cannot afford... there are some recalcitrants who will sell and would want to turn the money around.... issues of delayed payment and competition in the same market where the dealer even quote lower prices. " In Case 2, it was ascertained that the main source of conflict emanates from the company's own distribution strategy, which allows both wholesalers and retailers to buy at a fixed price from its outlets. This obviously gives the retailer some advantage over the wholesaler in terms of margins. The company ends up competing with its customers, i.e. the wholesalers, when it attempts to deal directly with retailers. Another conflict-prone zone is where wholesalers are allowed to stock competing brands and occasionally default.
Case 3 indicated that it has no major conflict within the channel of distribution. They attributed this to the proper price management and cordial relationships with channel members. However, some conflicts were found to arise within product selection. While in Case 4 it was said that "...we have most of the conflicts coming from external and it is between the distributors where there is territorial encroachment... and refusal to operate exclusively as contracted. In Case 5, the conflicts emanate from the following sources: distribution of competitors' products by exclusive distributors, the case company dealing directly with large retailers and institutional buyers, lack of direct relationship with wholesalers, diversion of funds to stock other products during certain seasons, the partial integrated nature of structure, and margins to the intermediaries, especially the wholesalers.
Channel Conflict Management
In channel conflict management, Case 1 pointed that "...we take stock with channel members and if the stock is not there you are given a short time to pay back... when it comes to crunch we drag them to court. ' Case 1 has adopted a recommended retail price strategy help to insulate the wholesalers even though they admit it is not a lasting solution. Within Case 2, conflicts are managed by assigning the sales force to different territories to manage territorial sales to allow for a proper territorial management. Case 3 said that, "...we persuade the distributors and other members to take all product lines associated with us." They also resort to persuasion of channel members to stick with their products by making sure they adhere to rules and regulations established between the parties.
In Case 4, conflicts are managed by giving proprietary warning letters and, sometimes, summary dismissal. They also have produced a distributor guide for distributors with the do's and don'ts spelled out in them and territorial lines drawn. The BDM and the FSM of Case 5 explained conflict management in the following words: "...in October, November, you have to start controlling your credit because the exposure will be high because they will use your money to go and buy imported rice. When school is about to re-open too, we do some controlling credit because parents are paying school fees. "
Comparative Analysis among Cases
Similar to the individual case analysis, the comparative analysis was executed in line with the three main research questions, which have been presented in the following table with further discussion ensuing.
RQl: How do the case companies organize their distribution channel? The case companies do not necessarily operate similar distribution systems. While some operate a three-level distribution channel systems, others also operate two level of distribution. Four out of the five operate a three-level distribution system through different categories and number of distributors, wholesalers, and retailers. The other has a multi-level system, which has a two-level and a single-level system. Even among those operating similar levels, there are other variations in terms of direct dealings outside of the distributor, as shown in the table above. Amidst all the organized distribution strategies adopted by the firms, there seems to be a direct selling strategy where most of the case companies sell directly to other channel members outside of the distributor except Case 4. The arrangement is done to help serve larger retailers and consumers.
Regarding the intensity of the distribution channel, i.e. intensive, extensive, and exclusive nature of the case companies' strategies, the companies were practicing a combination of intensive and exclusive distribution. The exclusive nature is explained by the fact that the Case 5 has 1 1 key distributors in the country with 1 key distributor that focuses on the institutional buyers, whereas each of the other 10 exclusive distributors is based in a regional capital of Ghana. Case 4 has the distributors as exclusive partners, while the wholesalers are seen as independent, short-gap measures. The intensive system was evident in the fact that the case companies intensively distribute to as many outlets as possible in order to complement the efforts of the exclusive distributors.
RQ2: What are the sources of conflict? Even though the conflicts in distribution among the case companies seem diverse, they are interrelated at some point. While some have logistical conflict among channel members, others see their conflict as mostly external of their operations, and others are between the case companies and their direct distributors due to distribution channel arrangements. The sources of conflicts for the case companies are the exclusive rights with distributors, the case companies direct dealing with retailers and institutional buyers, lack of direct relationship with wholesalers, diversion of funds to stock other products during certain seasons, partial integrated nature of the structure, and margins to the intermediaries. The lack of direct relationship and proper supervision, price, and territorial regulation leaves much in the hands of the intermediaries. Some of the case companies become prone to default due to the lack of proper management of credit facilities. While some strictly operate a cash and carry system that allows them to properly manage their cashflow, others pursue a credit system without an appropriate recovery schedule.
RQ3: How are the conflicts managed? The conflict management of the case companies was seen as a major managerial issue they must tackle. Different approaches are used in an attempt by the firms to solve their channel conflict all due to proper relationship management across the distribution chain. The case companies adopted prosecution, persuasion, training, credit facilities, and caution as the main means of solving their channel conflicts. None of the case companies were using what is prescribes as the best way of handling conflict by McDonald, 1999, i.e. keeping regular and mutual communication and a close collaboration with channel members. The key to most of the conflicts in the case companies is a matter of creating co-operation, which is intended to build members motivation by establishing consensus regarding their objectives. There must be enough room for channel members to communicate their needs and goals to allow the firms to build a domain consensus among channel members on profit margins, territorial demarcations, price indiscrimination, and payment periods.
Implications of Findings
It is clear from the above discussions that, in most cases, the managerial commitment to solving all the conflicts that occur between intermediaries is low and that the negative consequence thereof is a blind stupor. They often see them as not directly under their control with the point that they concentrate on building the brand with the consumers. It must, however, be said that, it takes a harmonious channel relationship among intermediaries to build the brand. There seems to be a confirmation of what Kotier and Armstrong (2009) put out, that marketing practitioners seem to be inclined towards more conspicuous aspects of marketing looking down on distribution issues. Clarke, 2000 assertion that having access to a good distribution channel is fundamental to good marketing and the usage of intermediaries strategically position the firm well on success path does not come clear to the case companies. The key managerial implication is that the case companies must endeavor to set up an integrated channel system. Even though scholars (see Kotier, 2004; Gunlack, et al., 2006) have indicated the possibility of having conflicts in distribution, there must be a concerted effort from companies to reduce the conflict levels and integrate their channel of distribution. This will ensure proper control of the channel structure and the conflicts that may exist among channel members. A proper management of price regimes by the firms will see them clearly creating a better relationship across all the members of the channel.
Lack of explicit price regimes and distributorship policies in the initial relationship establishment between the producers and the intermediaries have caused most of the conflicts confronted by the case companies. With the conflicts in distribution territories, price discrepancies, debt payment problems, and breaches of exclusive distributorship, firms can perform a reengagement of the distributors with specific contractual agreement spelling out the goals of engagement, legal rights, and requirement of parties and payment terms coupled with better relationship management across the channel. Channel structural arrangements, strategies, sources of conflicts, and its management are legitimate areas for enquiry, since they have far reaching implications on multinational success in the marketplace. The study has presented the theoretical perspectives as well as empirical evidence on these major dimensions of multinationals channel management. Some key discoveries include alternative channels arrangements exist for which multinational use or provide convenience for their target market, there are numerous conflicts prone zones in channel management that require the attention of corporate managers and multiple methods abounds in resolving channel conflicts for the case companies.
Future Research Direction and Conclusion
With the lack of consensus on the issues in the research domain and the differing alternatives in terms of perspectives and methods of research, this study has given insights into the multinationals distribution operations in a developing economy to contribute to the debate and has presented issues as they happen. This study has brought to light key issues that happen in the channel structuring and conflict management in multinationals operating in Ghana. The key questions posed allowed the study to help companies to know the difficulty in managing channels of distribution, conflicts, and marketing intermediaries and how to prudently embark on efficient channel management relationships. The study, through a comprehensive literature review, posed three research questions to investigate in the channel structure, channel conflict, and management in the five companies. Within the cases analysis and among the case analysis brought out all the distribution issues in the case companies. While there were similarities in some aspects of thendistribution operations, there were dissimilarities in key areas, such as structure, intermediary relationships, conflict source and management. Several attempts by the firms to mitigate the channel problems have not yielded the best of solutions. The study has given key managerial implications that managers can consider in their channel structuring and conflict management.
The study was limited to a few multinationals operating in Ghana and, therefore, does not allow for generalization to all multinationals in the country. The study was also limited to the producer aspect of the distribution structure and therefore does not include the direct issues of the intermediaries. This study, therefore, triggers further research into the activities of channel members to solicit their views on the channel issues. Also, channel management involves a lot of variables; however, this current study is restricted to channel structure and strategy as well as conflict sources and mechanisms to deal with them. Future studies could explore other variables and even explore how effective channel design and conflict identification and its management relate to performance among multinationals in the country.
Bowersox, D. J., Cooper, M. B., Lambert, D. M., & Taylor D. A. (1980). Management in marketing channels. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. Domicile.
Brown, J. R. & Day, R. L. (1981). Measures of manifest conflict in distribution channels. Journal of Marketing Research, 18, 263-274.
Chisnall, P. M. (1997). Marketing research (5th ed.). Berkshire: McGraw-Hill Publishing Company.
Clarke, I. (2000). Retail power, competition and local consumer choice in the UK grocery sector. European Journal of Marketing, 34(S), 975-1002.
Coelho, R, & Easingwood, C. (2003). An exploratory study into the drivers of channel change. European Journal of Marketing, 42(9/10), 1005-1022.
Coughlan, A. T, Anderson, E., Stern, L. W., & El-Ansary, A. I. (2006). Marketing channels (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Gundlach, G. T., Bolumole, Y. ?., Eltantawy, R. ?., & Frankel, R. (2006). The changing landscape of supply chain management, marketing channels of distribution, logistics and purchasing. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing. 21(1), 428^38.
Hingley, K. M. (2005). Power unbalanced relationships: Cases from UK fresh food supply. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 33(8), 551-569.
Holmvall, L. (1995). Praktisk export. Molmo: Liber-Hermods AB.
Jobber, D. (2001). Principles and practice of marketing (3rd ed.). London: McGraw-Hill.
Kotier P., & Armstrong, G. (2006). Principles of marketing. Pearson International Edition. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Kotier, P., & Keller, K. (2009). Marketing management, (13th ed.). New Jersey: Prentice Hall
Kotier, P. (2004). Marketing management (11th ed.). New Jersey: Prentice Hall
Luk, S. T. (1997). Structural changes in China's distribution system. International Journal of Physical Distribution & logistics Management, 28(\), 44-67.
Lusch, R. F. (1982). Management of retail enterprises. Kent Publishing, Boston, MA.
Mahmoud, A. M., Hinson, R. E., & Anning-Dorson, T. (2010). Understanding the patterns of distribution of management of a leading multinational company in Ghana, Proceedings of the 11th Annual Conference, International Academy of African Business and Development (IAABD). 11, 180-187.
McDonald, L. (1999). Managing channel conflict. Mortgage Banking, 60, 88-99, in Osman L. (1990). Introduction to Banking. Molmo: Liber-Hermods AB.
Menkhaus, D. J., Yakunina, A. V. & Herz, P. J. (2004). Food retailing and supply chain linkages in the Russian federation. Journal of East- West Business. 10(3), 53-73.
Robson, C. (1993). Real world research. Oxford: Blackwell.
Roper, A. (2005). Marketing standardisation: Tour operators in the Nordic region. European Journal of Marketing, 39(516), 514-527.
Saunders, M., & Thornhill, A. (2000). Research methods for business students (2nd ed.). London: Pearson Education Limited.
Sen, B. (2006). Defining market orientation for libraries. library Management, 27(4/5), 201-217.
Shipley, D., & Eagan, C. (1992). Power, conflict and corporation in brewer-tenant distribution channel. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 3(4) 44-62.
Stake, R. E. (1995). The art of case study research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Yin, R. K. (1994). Case study research design and methods. London: Sage.
Yin, R. K. (2003). Case study research design and methods (3rd ed.). California: Sage Publications.
Mohammed Abdulai Mahmoud, Robert Ebo Hinson and Thomas Anning-Dorson
University of Ghana Business School, University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana…
Questia, a part of Gale, Cengage Learning. www.questia.com
Publication information: Article title: Channel Structure and Conflict Management among Multinational Corporations (MNCs) in Ghana. Contributors: Mahmoud, Mohammed Abdulai - Author, Hinson, Robert Ebo - Author, Anning-Dorson, Thomas - Author. Journal title: International Management Review. Volume: 7. Issue: 2 Publication date: April 1, 2011. Page number: 35+. © American Scholars Press, Inc. 2008. Provided by ProQuest LLC. All Rights Reserved.