Integrating Spirituality into Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in an Acute Psychiatric Setting: A Pilot Study

By Rosmarin, David H.; Auerbach, Randy P. et al. | Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, December 1, 2011 | Go to article overview

Integrating Spirituality into Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in an Acute Psychiatric Setting: A Pilot Study


Rosmarin, David H., Auerbach, Randy P., Bigda-Peyton, Joseph S., Björgvinsson, Thröstur, Levendusky, Philip G., Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy


Results from national studies in the United States suggest that spiritually integrated psychotherapy may be desired by and beneficial for a specific subset of patients. However, protocols to facilitate these aims within the context of evidence-based psychosocial treatments are few, and, consequently, the availability of spiritually integrated cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is limited. This article describes the development and implementation of a brief (50-minute), stand-alone Spirituality & CBT group piloted in an acute psychiatric setting. This novel treatment includes (a) psychoeducation about the relevance of spirituality to psychiatric symptoms, (b) the integration of spiritual beliefs into cognitive restructuring, and (c) the use of spiritual exercises in behavioral activation and self-care. We further report results from a brief survey of 45 patients regarding the perceived relevance of spirituality to symptoms and treatment and their subjective experiences in the group.

Keywords: spirituality; religion; culturally-sensitive treatment; diversity

National studies in the United States consistently highlight that spiritual beliefs and practices are part of daily life for most Americans (e.g., Gallup Poll, 2011; The Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life, 2008). Further, a rich body of empirical literature now ties spirituality and religion to psychological health in the general population. In one large-scale meta-analysis, 80% of 850 studies demonstrated a positive relationship between religious beliefs and practices and greater life satisfaction, and nearly two thirds of studies reported lower rates of anxiety and depression among more spiritual individuals (Koenig, McCullough, & Larson, 2001). Consistent evidence also indicates that spirituality and religion are vital resources for many individuals in times of psychological distress (Pargament, 1997). Consequently, it is not surprising that many medical and psychiatric patients report a desire for spiritually integrated care (Knox, Caitlin, Casper, & Schlosser, 2005; Lindgren & Coursey, 1995; Puchalski, Larson, & Lu, 2001).

In light of these findings, numerous spiritually integrated psychosocial treatments have been developed in recent years (Pargament, 2007). Spiritually integrated treatments are similar to conventional psychotherapy except the rationale for treatment can be presented in a spiritual framework, and patients are encouraged to harness spiritual resources and address spiritual concerns with the hope of ameliorating symptoms and enhancing motivation and treatment compliance. Numerous attempts to integrate spirituality into cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and rational emotive behavioral therapy have been met with success (see Rosmarin, Pargament, & Robb, 2010 for a discussion). In terms of treatment efficacy, although research on spiritually integrated treatments is still emerging, nearly 40 clinical trials have now been conducted and initial findings seem promising. Several prominent, randomized controlled studies have now demonstrated that spiritually based treatments can be effective for various symptoms, particularly for religious patients (e.g., Oman, Hedberg, & Thoresen, 2006; Propst, Ostrom, Watkins, Dean, & Mashburn, 1992; Rosmarin, Pargament, Pirutinsky, & Mahoney, 2010; Wachholtz & Pargament, 2009). Moreover, some research has indicated that spiritually integrated treatments might be marginally more effective than established secular therapies (Hook et al., 2009). For example, one recent meta-analysis (Smith, Bartz, & Richards, 2007) found that interventions with spiritual components produced a .51 greater reduction in symptoms than those without, across 16 experimental and quasi-experimental studies. Although the early state of literature and major methodological limitations in many previous studies make it difficult to speak conclusively about the comparative efficacy of spiritually integrated to secular treatments, more research and development in this area seems warranted. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Integrating Spirituality into Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in an Acute Psychiatric Setting: A Pilot Study
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.