Depression and Anxiety in a Cardiovascular Outpatient Clinic: A Descriptive Study

By Bayani, Baktash; Yousefi, Shakila et al. | Iranian Journal of Psychiatry, Summer 2011 | Go to article overview

Depression and Anxiety in a Cardiovascular Outpatient Clinic: A Descriptive Study


Bayani, Baktash, Yousefi, Shakila, Bayani, Mahtab, Shirmohammadi, Maryam, Alimoradi, Abdollatif, Falsoleiman, Homa, Yazdi, Narges, Arbabi, Mohammad, Iranian Journal of Psychiatry


Objective: Cardiac diseases are psycho-somatic disorders, and psychological aspects play an essential role in their initiation and exacerbation. The aim of this study was to gain appropriate knowledge in the epidemiology of co-morbid depression and anxiety disorder in cardiovascular outpatients.

Method: This study is descriptive with a sample of patients attending a cardio-vascular clinic. 238 individuals were included in this study using a consecutive sampling method. The study instrument was Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) questionnaire, which is a clinical scale for assessing anxiety and depression.

Results: Of the 238 participants in this study, 93(38.7%) were male and 146 (61.3%) female. 28.5% of patients suffered from anxiety disorders , and 41.9% had depression. Regarding comorbid diseases such as diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia and hypertension, the severity of depression was just related to hypertension. There was a meaningful relationship between gender and symptoms of anxiety so that symptoms were more severe in women.

Conclusion: Considering the high prevalence of depression and anxiety in patients suffering from cardio-vascular diseases, it is necessary to screen psychological disorders in patients with cardio-vascular diseases and improve their cardio-vascular health and quality of life as mush as possible.

Keywords: cardiovascular diseases, depression, anxiety, HADS

Iran J Psychiatry 2011; 6:125-127

During recent years many studies have been conducted on cardiovascular diseases. Considering the chronic manner of such diseases, their mortality rate, and the burden of these diseases on the economic generative years of people on the one hand and the nature of this condition as the most preventable non contagious diseases on the other hand, special and increasing attention has been paid to cardiovascular diseases (1, 2).Considering the world burden of these disease until 2020, they are the main cause of the increase in mortality rate in underdeveloped countries. It has been predicted that in 2020, cardio -vascular diseases will result in 25 million deaths; and regarding current circumstances, it seems that these diseases will bring about 35 to 60 percent deaths worldwide (3).

In Iran, cardio-vascular diseases are a health problem with social consequences (4). It has been estimated that, with their current pace, cardio-vascular diseases will be the first cause of disability in the next decades. As the Age of the onset of vascular diseases has decreased, about 1.3% of deaths that occur after the age of 35 are the result of cardiovascular related diseases (4).

Considering the fact that cardiac diseases are categorized as Psycho-somatic disorders, psychological aspects play an essential role in their initiation and exacerbation directly or indirectly (5).Also, psychiatric disorders can be a common complication in those with cardiovascular disease.

Some studies demonstrated that there was a range of 5%-10% of anxiety and 15-20% of depressive disorders among patients at outpatient cardiac wards. Acute psychological stressors and personality characters have proved to be risk factors for cardio-vascular diseases, and recent studies imply that depression and anxiety are independent factors that affect mortality and morbidity in patients with cardiac diseases. (6)

From the biological point of view, depression can disturb regulation of autonomous nervous system and lessen the power of regulatory of the Vagus nerve in heart, which will result in an increase in the rate of acute heart failure. Also, there is a role for platelets in coagulation and clot making in coronary accident in depressed patients (7). Depression can lead to such unhealthy behaviors as smoking, unhealthy diet, alcoholism, lack of exercise and physical activity, which could give rise to cardio-vascular diseases .It has been estimated that cardiac symptoms in 10 to 20 percent of patients who refer to cardiologists are the consequences of psychiatric problems, most of which are related to anxiety, panic disorder and depression (8). …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Depression and Anxiety in a Cardiovascular Outpatient Clinic: A Descriptive Study
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.