Contrasting Effects of Sand Burial and Exposure on Invertebrate Colonization of Leaves

By Scott, Susanna E.; Zhang, Yixin | The American Midland Naturalist, January 2012 | Go to article overview

Contrasting Effects of Sand Burial and Exposure on Invertebrate Colonization of Leaves


Scott, Susanna E., Zhang, Yixin, The American Midland Naturalist


ABSTRACT.-

Leaf detritus in streams fills dual resource roles as habitat and as food. Unless retained by some structural component, detritus gets transported to downstream reaches out of the local system. Low gradient sandy-bottomed streams retain leaf detritus via burial in sand, but this mechanism of retention limits the availability of detritus as a resource for the benthic community. We hypothesized that burial of leaf litter in sand would impact invertebrate colonization by reducing density and richness on leaf litter. We conducted a short-term experiment (i.e., 2 wk) in a sandy-bottom stream in which leaves were subject to either burial in sandy substrate, exposure to the water column, or a sequential combination of both. Results showed that 2 wk burial of leaf litter significantly impacted the colonization of benthic invertebrates. Burial or exposure status of leaves at the time of collection represented the major factor influencing invertebrate abundances on leaf litter. Leaves exposed to the water column had the highest abundance of invertebrates, dominated by collector-gatherers, that suggests the primary role of leaf litter as refugia in this system. Burial of leaf litter in sand had a significantly negative effect on invertebrate colonization of leaf litter. Furthermore, no difference existed in invertebrate colonization on leaf litter that had never been buried versus leaf litter that had been buried for 1 wk and then exposed and collected after a week in the water column. This suggests short-term burial of leaf litter does not influence colonization by invertebrates once leaf litter is exposed to the water column. The results of this study suggest that the benthic colonization on newly exposed leaf litter is rapid, potentially due to a lack of habitat structure availability in the sandy-bottomed stream.

INTRODUCTION

In-stream structural properties, including substrate type and woody debris availability, affect organic matter retention, which in turn, influences benthic community dynamics (Bunn and Davies, 2000) . Leaf litter retained by instream structures increase habitat patches and food availability (Anderson et al, 1978), which can enhance invertebrate diversity (Richardson and Neill, 1991; Lemly and Hildebrand, 2000; Zhang et al, 2003). Amalgamations of retained leaf Utter also provide benthic invertebrates refugia from predators (Johnson et al, 2003). Much research has been conducted concerning the retention and processing of leaf litter in high-grathent, cobble- and gravel- dominated streams (Peterson and Cummings, 1974; Webster et al, 1994; Kobayashi and Kagaya, 2005), but low grathent sandy-bottomed streams have garnered considerably less attention (Metzler and Smock, 1990; Yamamuro and Lamberti, 2007).

Low gradient, sandy-bottomed streams commonly occur across the Gulf Coastal Plain in the Southeastern United States. Unlike cobble- and gravel-dominated streams, in which the substrate provides physical structure for organic matter retention and influence breakdown rate (Hoover et al, 2006), sandy-bottomed streams have highly mobile substrate and little stable structure for retaining organic matter (Webster et al, 1994; Jones, 1997). In these systems, litter retaining woody debris can be ephemeral and infrequent (Roeding and Smock, 1989; Jones, 1997). Due to this lack of instream structure for primary producers (e.g., algae), benthic invertebrate consumers may be reliant on detrital inputs as the primary basal resource (Roeding and Smock, 1989) and as habitat (Johnson et al, 2003). Disturbances, such as storms and andiropogenic activity, can lead to sediment transport that may entrain and bury organic matter (Smock, 1990; Schofield et al, 2004), possibly limiting its availability to invertebrate colonizers. The dynamic shifting of sand buries organic matter under the stream bed and espouses organic matter from sand, providing a unique mechanism for organic matter storage and retention in sandy streams.

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Contrasting Effects of Sand Burial and Exposure on Invertebrate Colonization of Leaves
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.