Freedom of Photography - the Malaysian Scenario: A Vital Element of Press Freedom

By Ali, Mohd Nor Shahizan; Rahman, Mat Pauzi Abd et al. | Asian Social Science, April 2012 | Go to article overview

Freedom of Photography - the Malaysian Scenario: A Vital Element of Press Freedom


Ali, Mohd Nor Shahizan, Rahman, Mat Pauzi Abd, Hashim, Hasrul, Mua, Normah, Samani, Mus, Asian Social Science


Abstract

Freedom of photography will be discussed in line with ethics, rules and regulations. This research will elaborate the freedom of photography (mainly) focused on freedom of the press that is present in Malaysian scenario. The research will determine two aspects of Freedom of Photography based on Press Freedom. The two aspects are rules and regulations and ethics. These criteria's are used to understand what has been applied in the Malaysian Press. This research will show us the point of view from government regulations that the scenario is practiced by the Malaysian Press industry. Journalistic Principles (Code of Ethics) will be taken as a consideration to show that most decision making for press and photography are related to these principles. Press Freedom also affected the Freedom of Photography in the way of that decision making. This research will discuss the reason of why the Malaysian government plays a role in imposing some rules and law to the press and photography. In conclusion, this research found that Malaysian presses have their freedom in Photography and a degree of toleration of Freedom of Photography within the Journalistic Principle (Code of Ethics), Rules and Regulations. The situation is in line with Malaysia's media rules and ethics or practicing democracy.

Keywords: Visual communication, Ethics, Press freedom, Media law, Freedom of photography, Journalism

1. Introduction

It is to our belief that freedom of photography should, and must be, enclave by the very least, rules and regulations set by governments and the relevant authorities, and universally, by ethics. These rules outline the least and the most minimum criteria and characteristics of doings that human beings should and should not do in order for them to be ethical. In situations where no rules or laws are available or enforced, when faced with an ethical dilemma, one has to come back to oneself and ask what is best to be done. What is good, and what is bad. What is right, and what is wrong. Personal ethics is the best consultant to turn to in these situations (Raboy & Dagenais, 1992).

Previous scholars define ethics as a set of principles, rules or ways of thinking that guide the action of an individual or a group (Velasquez & Rostankowski, 1985), an effort to identify principles that constitute values and rules of life recognized by us as individuals or a group or culture (Fink, 1995) and is a concern for distinguishing between right and wrong for journalism in the public interest (Clarke, 2004). According to Merril (1975), ethics should provide the journalist certain basic principles or standards by which he can judge actions to be right or wrong, good or bad, responsible or irresponsible.

Freedom of photography generally refers to photographs made in public places - not only streets, but parks, beaches, malls, political conventions and myriad other settings - often but not always featuring people, usually in candid situations, going about their everyday lives (Harris & Lester, 2001).

2. Press Freedom and Photography

It is quite true that words and terms can mean whatever any person wants them to mean, and certainly this is true with "press freedom and photograph". But it is what the person wants it to mean that is important, and it is intellectual cowardice to write the concept off as "really inconsequential" or "simply relative" (Kirtley, 2010). The concept is important; in fact, it is basic to all other journalistic considerations. And it must be dealt with - at least on a personal, individual basis. Fundamental question must be answered; for example ; does freedom of photography belong to the press in any aspects related to freedom of the press as long as there are picture values? Does press freedom imply some kind of press responsibility, and if so, what about photography? Or does press freedom mean freedom to the press to have access on photograph to individual privacy? …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Freedom of Photography - the Malaysian Scenario: A Vital Element of Press Freedom
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.