Variations in Nicotine Yields between Single Cigarettes

By Goniewicz, Maciej L.; Koszowski, Bartosz et al. | Central European Journal of Public Health, March 2012 | Go to article overview
Save to active project

Variations in Nicotine Yields between Single Cigarettes


Goniewicz, Maciej L., Koszowski, Bartosz, Czogala, Jan, Kuma, Tomasz, Gawron, Michal, Kosmider, Leon, Knysak, Jakub, Sobczak, Andrzej, Central European Journal of Public Health


SUMMARY

Introduction and Aims: It is beyond any doubt that nicotine yield in cigarettes as determined using standard ISO method bears almost no relation to smokers' actual intake. However, the ISO method is still in use in many countries where the government is responsible for controlling and monitoring cigarette quality. The aim of the study was to measure the nicotine yield in single cigarettes and to evaluate their statistical distribution among the same brand.

Materials and methods: Nicotine yields were measured according to the ISO method in single cigarettes of the twenty most popular Polish brands of cigarettes.

Results: Relative standard deviation of nicotine yields in single cigarettes of the same brands varied from 16% to 34%. Relative differences between nicotine yields in a single cigarette of a particular brand and the mean value varied from -65% to +76%.

Discussion and Conclusions: The results indicate high variation in nicotine yields between cigarettes of the same brand. Such variation might affect compensatory smoking. This provides another reason why yields estimated using the standard ISO method are potentially misleading to smokers. Further studies are needed to better understand the implications of within-brand variability in yields for tobacco product regulation.

Key words: nicotine, cigarettes, tobacco smoke, cigarette smokers, ISO, FTC

INTRODUCTION

Directive 2001/37/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 June 2001 on the approximation of the laws, regulations and administrative provisions of the Member States concerning the manufacture, presentation and sale of tobacco products obliges all Member States to establish a policy on tobacco market control. The Directive regulates many aspects of tobacco products' sale, control, advertisement, labeling, and maximum yields of selected constituents etc. In the U.S., the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (S. 982) grants authority to regulate tobacco products (including nicotine content in cigarettes) to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

Nicotine in cigarette smoke shall be measured on the basis of international standard ISO 10315 (1) which is analogous to US FTC method (2). The standard describes a method for determination of nicotine in smoke condensate by means of gas chromatography. Cigarettes are usually smoked in a series of five or twenty, using a standard smoking machine. Smoking conditions are as follows: puff volume 35±0.25 mL, puff duration 0.05 s, intervals between puffs 60±0.5 s. Cigarettes are smoked until the butt length is 8mm from the filter (for filter cigarettes). The generated particulate matter is collected using standard Cambridge filters. Then the particulate matter is dissolved in a solvent (propan-2-ol) and the obtained solution is analysed by means of gas chromatography. The results of the chromatographic analysis are finally calculated per one cigarette. The method described allows for determination of nicotine in the particulate phase, while excluding the amount of nicotine in the gas phase. Sampling of cigarettes for laboratory control analysis of nicotine shall be performed in accordance with international standard ISO 8243 (3). Sampling requirements describe precisely the number of sampling points to be randomly sampled (shops, supermarkets, vending machines, etc.) and the number of sale units (packets) to be taken at each sampling point for each laboratory sample. Directive 2001/37/ EC also states that the nicotine yield of cigarette shall not be greater than 1 mg per cigarette. The confidence interval allowed for nicotine is ±20% (sampling at one point in time).

If the information about nicotine yields is provided by manufacturers on the cigarette pack it will represent the mean value of more than 20 cigarettes. Nicotine yield is the amount of nicotine in tobacco smoke generated from a single cigarette under standard laboratory conditions.

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
Loading One moment ...
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

Cited article

Variations in Nicotine Yields between Single Cigarettes
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

While we understand printed pages are helpful to our users, this limitation is necessary to help protect our publishers' copyrighted material and prevent its unlawful distribution. We are sorry for any inconvenience.
Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.

Are you sure you want to delete this highlight?