Residential Segregation and Infant Mortality: A Multilevel Study Using Iranian Census Data

By Nazari, S. S.; Mahmoodi, M. et al. | Iranian Journal of Public Health, October 1, 2012 | Go to article overview

Residential Segregation and Infant Mortality: A Multilevel Study Using Iranian Census Data


Nazari, S. S., Mahmoodi, M., Mansournia, M. A., Naieni, K. Holakouie, Iranian Journal of Public Health


Abstract

Background: There is a great amount of literature concerning the effect of racial segregation on health outcomes but few papers have discussed the effect of segregation on the basis of social, demographic and economic characteristics on health. We estimated the independent effect of segregation of determinants of socioeconomic status on infant mortality in Iranian population.

Methods: For measuring segregation, we used generalized dissimilarity index for two group and multi group nominal variables and ordinal information theory index for ordinal variables. Sample data was obtained from Iranian latest national census and multilevel modeling with individual variables at level one and segregation indices measured at province level for socioeconomic status variables at level two were used to assess the effect of segregation on infant mortality.

Results: Among individual factors, mother activity was a risk factor for infant mortality. Segregated provinces in regard to size of the house, ownership of a house and motorcycle, number of literate individual in the family and use of natural gas for cooking and heating had higher infant mortality. Segregation indices measured for education level, migration history, activity, marital status and existence of bathroom were negatively associated with infant mortality.

Conclusion: Segregation of different contextual characteristics of neighborhood had different effects on health outcomes. Studying segregation of social, economic, and demographic factors, especially in communities, which are racially homogenous, might reveal new insights into dissimilarities in health.

Keywords: Residential segregation, Infant mortality, Generalized dissimilarity index, Information theory index

(ProQuest: ... denotes formulae omitted.)

Introduction

One of the interesting issues in the fields of epidemiology and social science is the relation between the pattern of health outcomes and the context of where people live. During the past decade sociologists and epidemiologists have shown interest in how these contextual factors influence health. An important subset of these researches is concerned with whether differences in health outcomes like death, disease, having a risk factor among population subgroups like racial subgroups or groups defined by socioeconomic status or residential place are attributed to or at least associated with the patterns of racial, educational, marital, occupational residential segregation.

Most researchers in this field have investigated the effect of racial residential segregation on death outcomes so far. One of their common findings is that segregation is associated with black mortality (1-5). Some other studies have investigated the effect of racial residential segregation on non death outcomes like tuberculosis (6) , cardiovascular disease, early adolescence sexual activity (7-8), black homicide rate (9), poor self related health, high body mass index (10) , low birth weight (11- 12), health service use (13) and preterm birth in black population (14) .

Although most researches about segregation and health mention a negative effect, some show a positive effect of segregation (15-16).

Previous works on segregation had some limitations. First, segregation literature to date is mostly consisted of researches about racial segregation and the effect of segregation of socioeconomic and demographic factors on health outcomes has not been fully reviewed.

Second, most measuring instruments have been limited to calculating segregation between two categories of a variable. These indices are not appropriate for multi group nominal or ordinal variables. Third, the effect of segregation has been widely evaluated in western context and few studies have been performed in eastern societies.

This paper departs from theses traditions. With the help of the advanced methods of measuring segregation we measured segregation indices for multi group categorical and ordinal variables, using the national census data of one eastern country to evaluate the effect of segregation of markers of socioeconomic status on infant mortality.

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Residential Segregation and Infant Mortality: A Multilevel Study Using Iranian Census Data
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.