The Price of Success: Some Consequences of Increased Access to Higher Education in Israel/LA RANCON DU SUCCES: QUELQUES CONSEQUENCES DE L'ACCES A L'ENSEIGNEMENT SUPERIEUR EN ISRAEL

By Davidovitch, Nitza; Sinuany-Stern, Zilla et al. | Cross - Cultural Communication, April 1, 2012 | Go to article overview
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The Price of Success: Some Consequences of Increased Access to Higher Education in Israel/LA RANCON DU SUCCES: QUELQUES CONSEQUENCES DE L'ACCES A L'ENSEIGNEMENT SUPERIEUR EN ISRAEL


Davidovitch, Nitza, Sinuany-Stern, Zilla, Iram, Yaacov, Cross - Cultural Communication


Abstract

Access to higher education in general, and to a bachelor's degree in particular, constitutes a major issue on the agendas of higher education systems in recent years. The end of WWII marked the global transition to higher education institutions of a democratic, open nature, and in most western countries, including Israel, the accelerated pace of this transformation in the twentieth century led to the massification of the bachelor's degree. In the final quarter of the twentieth century, Israel's Planning and Budgeting Committee conceived of the system of higher education as consisting of two levels: universities, with a focus on research and graduate studies, and colleges with a focus on undergraduate studies, which would serve as instruments of equality and social justice for students from the periphery through access to higher education. However, increased access affected both the new colleges and the longstanding universities, which competed among themselves, and gradually obliterated the differences between them. In this paper we discuss two specific aspects of this transformation and their implications: whether the Israeli Council of Higher Education's major goal of increased access has been achieved and the effects of increased access to bachelor's degree programs on the expansion of master's degree programs.

Key words: Higher education; Bachelor's degree; Massification; Equality; Justice; Periphery

Résumé

L'accès à l'enseignement supérieur en général, et à un diplôme de baccalauréat, en particulier, constitue un enjeu majeur dans les agendas des systèmes d'enseignement supérieur ces dernières années. La fin de la Seconde Guerre mondiale a marqué la transition mondiale vers les établissements d'enseignement supérieur d'une société démocratique, la nature ouverte, et dans la plupart des pays occidentaux, y compris Israël, l'accélération du rythme de cette transformation dans le XXe siècle a conduit à la massification du diplôme de baccalauréat. Dans le dernier quart du XXe siècle, de la planification d'Israël et du Comité du budget a conçu le système d'enseignement supérieur comme étant composée de deux niveaux: les universités, avec un accent sur la recherche et aux études supérieures, et les collèges avec un accent sur les études de premier cycle, qui serviraient comme des instruments de l'égalité et la justice sociale pour les étudiants de la périphérie à travers l'accès à l'enseignement supérieur. Toutefois, l'accès accru affecté à la fois les nouveaux collèges et les universités de longue date, qui se disputent entre eux, et peu à peu effacé les différences entre eux. Dans cet article, nous discutons de deux aspects particuliers de cette transformation et de leurs implications: si le Conseil israélien de l'objectif majeur de l'enseignement supérieur de l'accès accru a été réalisé et les effets d'un accès accru aux programmes de baccalauréat sur l'expansion des programmes de maîtrise.

Mots Clés: L'enseignement supérieur; Baccalauréat; La massification; L'égalité; La justice; à la périphérie

INTRODUCTION

Access to higher education in general, and to a bachelor's degree in particular, constitutes a major issue on the agendas of higher education systems in recent years (GuriRozenblit, 2000). Since the establishment of the world's first university in the eleventh century, universities have traditionally functioned as ivory towers, permitting entry to a chosen few. Over centuries, universities retained their elitist status and helped perpetuate social inequalities.

After 900 years, this situation, where elite has hegemony over higher education, came to end. The end of WWII marked the transition of higher education institutions to a democratic, open nature. In most western countries, the accelerated pace of this transformation in the twentieth century led to the massification of the bachelor's degree. In less than 50 years, the number of individuals holding such a degree tripled.

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The Price of Success: Some Consequences of Increased Access to Higher Education in Israel/LA RANCON DU SUCCES: QUELQUES CONSEQUENCES DE L'ACCES A L'ENSEIGNEMENT SUPERIEUR EN ISRAEL
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