Pennsylvania's Secondary RTII Initiative Impact of a Multi-Tiered System of Support in Five Middle Schools

By Lillenstein, Jennifer; Fritschmann, Nanette et al. | Perspectives on Language and Literacy, Spring 2012 | Go to article overview

Pennsylvania's Secondary RTII Initiative Impact of a Multi-Tiered System of Support in Five Middle Schools


Lillenstein, Jennifer, Fritschmann, Nanette, Moran, Laura, Perspectives on Language and Literacy


Rationale for Pennsylvania's Secondary RtII Research to Practice Initiative

There is widespread national, state, and local support for the implementation of Response to Intervention (RTI). The intent of RTI in Pennsylvania is to assist schools with the establishment of a standards-aligned comprehensive school improvement framework that reinforces high-quality core curriculum and instruction and the adoption of a continuum of evidencebased practices intended to maximize academic and behavioral outcomes for all students. The need to systematically prevent and effectively treat early reading failure, as well as increase adolescent literacy outcomes, lies at the heart of both elementary and secondary adoption and intended outcomes. While literacy has been the initial area of emphasis for Pennsylvania's middle school learning sites, there has been integration of tiered supports for mathematics and positive behavior support as well. It should be noted that Pennsylvania's multi-tiered model is referred to as "Response to Instruction and Intervention (RtII)" to underscore the importance of highquality, standards aligned core instruction for ALL students (see Figure 1 ).

Based upon the aforementioned rationale, Pennsylvania has committed to a long-term project that was initiated in 20092010 and involves the study and evaluation of secondary RTI implementation among five (and more recently six) middle schools located in the eastern, central, and western regions.

The project (Pennsylvania's Secondary RtII Learning Site Project) acknowledges that while limited research exists relative to the impact of secondary RTI implementation efforts, there is a need to learn more about the unique implementation challenges that exist at the secondary level. For example, administrators commonly report that changes in organizational structure, a shift in academic foci, and a general increase in extracurricular responsibilities, represent some of the strongest contrasts between elementary and secondary implementation considerations. Nonetheless, the path to improved secondary RTI outcomes is still believed to be attributable to persistence around quality implementation that includes the ongoing monitoring, evaluation, and refinement of those practices that have been shown to work within a data-driven and collaborative school climate. Similarly, Pennsylvania's Secondary RtII Learning Site Project was designed with this intent and subsequent outcomes in mind.

Characteristics of Pennsylvania's Secondary RtII Model

According to a review of the literature, RTI models share many common components including high-quality core instruction, universal screening, progress-monitoring, tiered intervention, and a focus on fidelity of implementation (National Center on Response to Intervention). Similarly, Pennsylvania's secondary RtII framework comprises the following components:

* High-quality standards-aligned core instruction for all students

* Relational support (i?-school, family, community) systems to provide students with the social/emotional and behavioral supports needed to engage them in the learning process and to complete their elected course of study

* Adoption and implementation of evidence-based methodologies for instruction and intervention

* Establishment of a multi-tiered system of increasingly intensive support matched to student need within the confines of the general education system

* Adoption of a continuum of reliable and valid assessment measures to inform instruction

* Provision of continuous, differentiated, professional learning for all staff

Figure 2 illustrates effective core and supplemental instructional practices and a continuum of reliable and valid measures that may be used within a comprehensive service delivery framework to assist educators with data-based decision making and instructional matching.

Strengthening Core/Tier 1 Literacy Practices: Vocabulary Instruction as a Common Implementation Priority

Since the inception of this project, each middle school learning site has identified both individual and collective implementation priorities intended to strengthen Tier 1 and foundational literacy practices within and across content areas via the goal planner (see Figure 3). …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Pennsylvania's Secondary RTII Initiative Impact of a Multi-Tiered System of Support in Five Middle Schools
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.