Relative Constancy of Personality Characteristics and Efficacy of a 12-Month Training Program in Facilitating Coping Strategies

By Norlander, Torsten; Bergman, Henrik et al. | Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, January 1, 2002 | Go to article overview

Relative Constancy of Personality Characteristics and Efficacy of a 12-Month Training Program in Facilitating Coping Strategies


Norlander, Torsten, Bergman, Henrik, Archer, Trevor, Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal


The present study reports a sublongitudinal experiment involving 15 employees (4 male and 11 female) of an insurance company all of whom underwent a 12-month program of intensive mental training and physical coaching in order to ascertain whether or not certain characteristics of personality, attitudes, beliefs or performance would be altered. Each participant was assessed on a battery of different questionnaires including: background variables, Change and Stability, Life Orientation test, Coping Resources Inventory and the Gordon personal profile and inventory. There was no change in Dispositional optimism or ten other related personality traits. Only four of the personality variables were altered on completion of the training program: the participants' self-evaluations were elevated, the stability of their norms and system of values was reinforced, their emotional stability was reinforced also, and their receptivity to new ideas/innovations was reinforced. These results are discussed in the context of the relative constancy of personality characteristics and the suitability of the observed changes, after the 12-month program, in promoting strategies of coping behavior.

Keywords: Dispositional optimism, emotional stability, longitudinal, original thinking, personality.

A multitude of studies has been performed to examine whether or not successful athletes may be distinguished from less successful athletes on the basis of different personality traits. Traits such as aggression, receptiveness-to-coaching, conscientiousness, determination, drive, emotional control, guilt-proneness, leadership qualities, mental toughness, self-confidence, trust, competitiveness and achievement-motivation have been tested in this context. Taken together, these studies seem to have achieved a moderate degree of success in relating certain personal characteristics to success in sport (Jarvis, 1999), despite the lack of confirmation from several other studies (e.g., Davis, 1991).

However, Rettew and Reivich (1995) report on three earlier investigations, using the Attributional Style Questionnaire and the Content Analysis of Verbatim Explanations as instruments (Schulman, Castellon, & Seligman, 1989). These studies demonstrated that teams and athletes with optimistic explanatory styles went on to perform better than did their competitors with pessimistic styles, especially under pressure or following a defeat. It was suggested that the mechanism here was that those with an optimistic explanatory style had greater ability to recover from setbacks. The results suggested, even though there was no instrument that directly measured the concept of optimism, that optimism should be included as an important variable in future research.

Folkesson, Nyberg, Archer and Norlander (2002) investigated to what extent the results of Rettew and Reivich (1995) may be qualified even under the application of a direct measure of optimism, and therefore used the Life Orientation Test (LOT), which provides a measure of dispositional optimism (Scheier & Carver, 1985), in a study of soccer referees' experience of threat and aggression. The results indicated that both pessimistically oriented and optimistically oriented referees experienced themselves as being exposed to threat and aggression to an equivalent degree, but that pessimistic referees suffered more from the effects. Pessimistically oriented referees experienced greater problems of motivation and their performance tended to deteriorate in comparison with those who were optimistically oriented. Further, the pessimistic referees had greater problems coping with aggressive behavior from the spectators.

Norlander and Archer (2002) investigated in two studies the utility of three psychological tests regarding the prediction of sport performance: the Profile of Mood States, Ratings of Perceived Exertion, and Dispositional Optimism. In the first study young male and female cross-country skiers and ski-marksmen in final preparation for the Junior National Swedish Championships were tested. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Relative Constancy of Personality Characteristics and Efficacy of a 12-Month Training Program in Facilitating Coping Strategies
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.