Promoting African American Women and Sexual Assertiveness in Reducing Hiv/aids: An Analytical Review of the Research Literature

By Kennedy, Bernice Roberts; Jenkins, Chalice C. | Journal of Cultural Diversity, Winter 2011 | Go to article overview

Promoting African American Women and Sexual Assertiveness in Reducing Hiv/aids: An Analytical Review of the Research Literature


Kennedy, Bernice Roberts, Jenkins, Chalice C., Journal of Cultural Diversity


Abstract: African American women, including adolescents and adults, are disproportionately affected by the transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). HIV/ AID is a health disparity issue for African American females in comparison to other ethnic groups. According to data acquired from 33 states in 2005, 64% of women who have HIV/ AIDS are African American women. It is estimated that during 2001-2004, 61 % of African Americans under the age of 25 had been living with HIV /AIDS. This article is an analytical review of the literature emphasizing sexual assertiveness of African American women and the gap that exists in research literature on this population. The multifaceted model of HIV risk posits that an interpersonal predictor of risky sexual behavior is sexual assertiveness. The critical themes extracted from a review of the literature reveal the following: (a) sexual assertiveness is related to HIV risk in women, (b) sexual assertiveness and sexual communication are related, and (c) women with low sexual assertiveness are at increased risk of HIV. As a result of this comprehensive literature, future research studies need to use models in validating sexual assertiveness interventions in reducing the risk of HlV/ AIDS in African American women. HIV/ AIDs prevention interventions for future studies need to target reducing the risk factors of HIV/ AIDS of African Americans focusing on gender and culture-specific strategies.

Key Words: HIV/AIDS, Sexual Assertiveness; African American Women; Communication

African American women, including adolescents and adults, are disproportionately affected by the transmission or Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). In the United States, health disparities exist related to HIV / AIDS among African American females in comparison to other ethnic groups (Arya, Behforoz, & Viswanath, 2009). HIV /AIDS is rising among African American women (CDC, 2008; CDC, 2007b). Currently, HIV /AIDS is the leading cause of death for black women (including African American women) in the 25-34 years age group. It is the third leading cause of death for black women aged 35^4 years and the fourth leading cause of death for black women aged 45-54 years (CDC, 2008; CDC, 2007b). African American women are affected with HIV / AIDS 25 times more than white women and four times more than Hispanic women (Hatcher, Burley & Lee-Ouga, 2008).

Healthy People 2010 Initiative is a set of 10-year health objectives by the Surgeon General developed to improve the health of the American people (CDC, 2010). This initiative continues to address the disproportionate impact of HIV /AIDS among certain racial and ethnic groups such as the African American women (CDC, 2010). According to data acquired from 33 states in 2005, 64% of women who have HI V / AIDS are African American women (CDC, 2007a; CDC, 2007b). It is estimated that during 2001-2004, 61% of African Americans under the age of 25 had been living with HIV/AIDS.

Having unprotected sex with a man who has HIV is the most common way African American women acquire HIV/ AIDS (CDQ 2007a; CDC, 2007b). Abstinence, sexual contact without the exchange of bodily fluids, and latex condom use are three ways that women can protect themselves (Quina, Harlow, Morozoff, & Burkholder, & Deiter, 2000). Yet, sexually active women must assert themselves in heterosexual relationships by communicating information, initiating wanted sex, refusing unwanted sex, and preventing pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases (Morokoff et al., 1997). While these options are available to women, the dramatic increase in HIV /AIDS over the years is evidence that women are not protecting themselves.

The HIV / AIDS prevention intervention literature, which has traditionally focused on individual variables, has been criticized for ignoring contextual variables (Amaro & Raj, 2000; Logan, Cole, & Leukefeld, 2002; Mize, Robinson, Bockting, & Scheltema, 2002; Morokoff et al. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Promoting African American Women and Sexual Assertiveness in Reducing Hiv/aids: An Analytical Review of the Research Literature
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.