Disentangling the Roles of History and Local Selection in Shaping Clinal Variation of Allele Frequencies and Gene Expression in Norway Spruce (Picea Abies)

By Chen, Jun; Källman, Thomas et al. | Genetics, July 2012 | Go to article overview

Disentangling the Roles of History and Local Selection in Shaping Clinal Variation of Allele Frequencies and Gene Expression in Norway Spruce (Picea Abies)


Chen, Jun, Källman, Thomas, Ma, Xiaofei, Gyllenstrand, Niclas, Zaina, Giusi, Morgante, Michele, Bousquet, Jean, Eckert, Andrew, Wegrzyn, Jill, Neale, David, Lagercrantz, Ulf, Lascoux, Martin, Genetics


ABSTRACT Understanding the genetic basis of local adaptation is challenging due to the subtle balance among conflicting evolutionary forces that are involved in its establishment and maintenance. One system with which to tease apart these difficulties is clines in adaptive characters. Here we analyzed genetic and phenotypic variation in bud set, a highly heritable and adaptive trait, among 18 populations of Norway spruce (Picea abies), arrayed along a latitudinal gradient ranging from 47°N to 68°N. We confirmed that variation in bud set is strongly clinal, using a subset of five populations. Genotypes for 137 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) chosen from 18 candidate genes putatively affecting bud set and 308 control SNPs chosen from 264 random genes were analyzed for patterns of genetic structure and correlation to environment. Population genetic structure was low (FST = 0.05), but latitudinal patterns were apparent among Scandinavian populations. Hence, part of the observed clinal variation should be attributable to population demography. Conditional on patterns of genetic structure, there was enrichment of SNPs within candidate genes for correlations with latitude. Twenty-nine SNPs were also outliers with respect to FST. The enrichment for clinal variation at SNPs within candidate genes (i.e., SNPs in PaGI, PaPhyP, PaPhyN, PaPRR7, and PaFTL2) indicated that local selection in the 18 populations, and/or selection in the ancestral populations from which they were recently derived, shaped the observed cline. Validation of these genes using expression studies also revealed that PaFTL2 expression is significantly associated with latitude, thereby confirming the central role played by this gene in the control of phenology in plants.

(ProQuest: ... denotes formula omitted.)

LOCAL adaptation is a key process in the evolution of species. Understanding how local adaptation is established and maintained, however, is especially difficult as its establishment is contingent upon historical conditions and its maintenance depends on the balance among conflicting evolutionary forces (e.g., Yeaman and Otto 2011). It is a particularly challenging task in forest trees, because they have long generation times and therefore cannot be easily manipulated experimentally. For instance, transfer experiments are theoretically possible but practically difficult to implement. On the other hand, the analysis of the strong latitudinal clines displayed by forest trees for potentially adaptive traits such as bud set (Dormling 1973; Savolainen et al. 2007; Aitken et al. 2008) can provide crucial information on the forces involved in local adaptation and, in particular, on the relative parts played by demography and selection in the establishment of the cline. Furthermore, phenology in general, and flowering time and bud set in particular, have been extensively studied and strong candidate genes are available, many of which belong to the photoperiodic pathway including the circadian clock (Gyllenstrand et al. 2007; Albani and Coupland 2010; Bergelson and Roux 2010; Fornara et al. 2010; Holliday et al. 2010; Hsu et al. 2011). Recent candidate gene studies on the genetic basis of clinal variation in phenology in European aspen (Ma et al. 2010) and Sitka spruce (Holliday et al. 2010; Lobo 2011) illustrate well the promises of this approach.

In the present study we focus on a conifer species, Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Kar.] and more specifically on clinal variation in the northwest part of its natural range. The clines in phenological traits observed in this species and in this part of its range are intriguing for several reasons. First, as in many other forest tree species (Jaramillo-Correa et al. 2001; Savolainen et al. 2007; Alberto et al. 2011; Kremer et al. 2010; Prunier et al. 2011), Norway spruce populations are strongly differentiated for bud set [QST = 0.74 (R. Liesch, unpublished data)], a trait with high heritability [average h2 = 0. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Disentangling the Roles of History and Local Selection in Shaping Clinal Variation of Allele Frequencies and Gene Expression in Norway Spruce (Picea Abies)
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.