Development and Testing of the Jakubik Mentoring Benefits Questionnaire among Pediatric Nurses
Jakubik, Louise D., Journal of Nursing Measurement
Background and Purpose: The ability to measure the benefits of mentoring among bedside nurses is essential for leaders in health care organizations to evaluate the effectiveness of mentoring initiatives for nurses. This article describes the development and testing of the Jakubik Mentoring Benefits Questionnaire (Jakubik MBQ). The instrument is a 36-item tool that uses a 5-point Likert scale to measure the individual and organizational benefits of mentoring from the nurse protégé's perspective. Methods: The original Jakubik MBQ was a 57-item tool developed and validated (validity 5 .96) with a panel of 6 expert judges prior to reliability testing in a pilot study with 11 subjects (Cronbach's alpha 5 .98). Subsequently, the 57-item instrument was used in 3 separate research studies (Jakubik, 2007a, 2007b; Jakubik, Eliades, Gavriloff, & Weese, 2011) with strong internal consistency reliability evidenced by Cronbach's alpha coefficients of .98, .98, and .97, respectively. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted on the 57-item instrument with the 453 subjects from the aforementioned 3 studies. Results: Results of the factor analysis confirmed a total of 6 factors (subscales). Based on the factor analysis, the 4 original theoretical subscales were confirmed, 2 additional subscales were added, the original subscales were renamed, and the instrument was shortened to 36 items with each subscale containing 6 items and an overall Cronbach's alpha of .97. Conclusions: Based on these overall findings, the Jakubik MBQ provides a valid and reliable instrument for use in measuring the mentoring benefits among pediatric staffnurse protégés engaged in mentoring relationships.
Keywords: mentoring; mentoring benefits; nurse; protégé
Mentoring is widely written about in the nursing literature as a mechanism to promote personal and professional development among nurse protégés and to achieve organizational outcomes including organizational commitment, succession planning, and retention (Andrews & Wallis, 1999; Cameron-Jones, & O'Hara, 1996; Cuesta & Bloom, 1998; Darling, 1984; Gordon, 2000; Lemire, 2001; Maggart & James, 1999; Owens & Patton, 2003; Vance, 2002; Walsh & Clements, 1995; Zey, 1991). Mentoring is a career tool used in business, education, and nursing to enhance knowledge and skill development and promote professional advancement (Garvey & Alred, 2000; Sosik & David, 2002; Vance, 2001).
The ability to measure specific benefits for individual nurses and the organizations where they work will provide a better understanding of how mentoring relationships can be leveraged within health care organizations to promote the mutual benefits of mentoring. The Jakubik Mentoring Benefits Questionnaire (Jakubik MBQ) is the first psychometric instrument identified by the researcher to measure the benefits of mentoring among hospital staffnurse protégés. This article presents the development, validation, and testing of the Jakubik MBQ.
The four objectives underlying this study examining the psychometric properties of the Jakubik MBQ were as follows: (a) to develop the Jakubik MBQ to measure mentoring benefits among pediatric staffnurse protégés, (b) to explore the instrument's validity based on mentoring literature and the evaluation of expert judges, (c) to explore the psychometric properties of the instrument, and (d) to confirm the instrument's theoretical subscales through exploratory factor analysis (EFA). The data used to examine the psychometric properties of the instrument were provided from a compilation of the data from three previous studies exploring the predictors of mentoring benefits among pediatric staffnurse protégés (Jakubik, 2007a, 2007b; Jakubik et al., 2011).
BACKGROUND AND CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
Mentoring has been viewed from two general perspectives: dyad and triad. The dyad perspective of mentoring views mentoring as a relational phenomenon between two people: the mentor and the protégé. …