The Role Played by Italy in Media History: Its Historical Problems and Its Recents Innovations in Journalism and Television World
Demir, Müge, Cross - Cultural Communication
Italy has had a great importance in terms of media in journalism from the middle ages to the present. You can see in this article that, the news letters which were used to inform people about the wars, kings, the important events in Rome Empires. These letters were hanging the city's walls of the Empire's in those days. In 21st century, it has established another empire in Italy which is called "Berlusconi's Media Empire!". I will explain that all the media history of Italy from the Middle Age to the 21st century.
Key Words: Italian media history; Journalism; Television
Müge Demir (2012). The Role Played by Italy in Media History: Its Historical Problems and Its Recents Innovations in Journalism and Television World. Cross-Cultural Communication, 8(3), 8-16. Available from URL http://www.cscanada.net/ index. php/ccc/article/view/j.ccc. 1923670020120803.2830
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3968/j.ccc. 1923670020120803.2830
Excellent reporters and well-known newspapers maintain that Italian journalism has been a model to emulate. Yet, in order to understand the importance of Italy in media history we must take some steps back. According to Alexander Andrews (Andrews, 1859, p. 56), "Ancient Rome is the birthplace of the newspaper, because Rome was the first place to have public newspaper: under Julius Caesar and his successors, a daily record of political news and acts was recorded at Rome and distributed to the Roman colonies" (Berry, 2008, p. 20). It is a matter of fact that in the 1st century before Christ, Julius Caesar ordered these handwritten news bulletins to be posted each day in the Forum, a large public space carved on metal or stone. The "Acta Diurna" to some extent filled the place of the modern newspaper and of the government gazette, introducing the expression "publicare et propagare", which means "make public and propagate". This expression was set in the end of the texts and proclaimed a release to both Roman citizens and non-citizens. After the empire collapsed, news dissemination depended on traveler's tales, songs, ballads, letters, and governmental dispatches.
A gradual innovation begun only in the 15th century when Filippo Castaldi, doctor and man of letters, received some chínese mobile characters as a dowry from his future wife, Caterina da Pola, Marco Polo's niece. As 'Serenissima Repubblica di Venezia' citizen, Castaldi begun this tradition firstly with glass characters then with wood pads used in a printing press in 1426, twenty-two years before Gutenberg's metal characters. Towards the middle of the 15th century, Venice produced almost the half of the printed books in Italy, becoming the most important european centre about printing art. In the same city, during the first years of 1500, Aldo Manuzio published his "enchiridia" (pocket books). These "enchiridia" were classic latin books without notes or comments, manufactured with the new character created by Francesco Griffo, italic type. The success of Venice has to be looked in its prime location, making the city a central point of trade between Europe and Middle East. Next to Latin and Vernacular books, also Hebrew and Armenian texts were printed in that period. In 1538, Alessandro Paganini (Nuovo, 1990) published the Kuran in Arabic but unfortunately all the copies were destroyed by the Vatican State. Another key factor that promoted the development of print in Venice is the initiative of some patrician families. Giuseppe Pomba's Company is the first one that, between 1828 and 1832, tried to direct its attention to the emerging mass market. The society printed the so-called 'Biblioteca Popolare' (Folk Library), offering classic traditional works of Italian, Greek and Latin literature, reaching in very few months the record number of 10.000 copies. It must be said that Pomba was forced to work in a strongly outdated context, where the editorial Italian market was extremely conditionated by censorships and privileges. …