Historically Black Colleges and Universities: An Encyclopedia

By Chunnu-Brayda, Winsome | The Journal of Negro Education, Spring 2012 | Go to article overview

Historically Black Colleges and Universities: An Encyclopedia


Chunnu-Brayda, Winsome, The Journal of Negro Education


Historically Black Colleges and Universities: An Encyclopedia, by F. Erik Brooks and Glenn L. Starks. Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood Press, 201 1, 338 pp., $89.00, hardcover.

In their new encyclopedia, F. Erik Brooks and Glenn L. Starks provide a comprehensive, up-todate general reading about historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) in the United States. Both authors hold PhDs; Brooks is an associate professor at Georgia Southern University, and Starks is a senior manager with the U.S. Department of Defense. This engaging book reads like a "coffee table book" and will appeal to everyone (Gasman, 2005, p. 33). As the authors indicate in the introduction, "This book . . . was written for a wide audience, to include lay people, students, academics, and policy makers" (p. xvi). Its general appeal notwithstanding, Historically Black Colleges and Universities: An Encyclopedia also will be welcomed by scholars, particularly, people who conduct academic research in higher education.

General interest books on the history of HBCUs are not new. For example, in 2004, Juan Williams and Dwayne Ashley published I'll Find a Way or Make One: A Tribute to Historically Black Colleges and Universities. Their book is a chronological, social history of HBCUs. However, such an attempt often oversimplifies topics by not including all the issues, and by not providing a breadth of secondary sources. Compared to I'll Find a Way, Brooks and Starks's encyclopedia is more pragmatic and aesthetically interesting to a larger audience; furthermore, they have made it available as an e-book at www.abc-clio.com.

The book begins by providing an event timeline and by listing the accredited public and private HBCUs as of 2010. The authors grasp that HBCUs are not limited solely to senior colleges and as such they include a listing of accredited junior or community colleges. Within the text, each HBCU is profiled by the era in which it was founded.

The first section discusses the founding of colleges during the antebellum era. The authors debunk the common narrative that HBCUs and African American schools were founded only after the Civil War. For example, the first HBCU, Cheyney University of Pennsylvania, was founded in 1 837. Moreover, the authors explain that progressive White colleges (Berea College, Oberlin College, etc.) admitted African Americans almost 30 years before the end of the Civil War.

The second section covers HBCUs founded from the war's end in 1865 until the end of Reconstruction in 1877. It presents the W. E. B. Du Bois-Booker T. Washington debate with regards to their philosophies on Black education in the latter part of the 19th century to the early 20th century.

The third section examines schools founded from the end of Reconstruction to the early 20th century. The Morrill Land Grant Act of 1890 increased public HBCUs because it mandated that southern state legislatures either desegregate its public colleges or establish separate Black colleges. The southern state legislatures choose the latter, leading up to the 1896 Plessy v. Ferguson decision (in which the Supreme Court ruled that segregation was constitutional).

The fourth section looks at HBCUs after the turn of the century and summarizes the challenges of that era. For example, there were issues of funding from beneficiaries, of the continued Du Bois- Washington debate, and of segregation in higher education.

The fifth section follows events during the 1960s and 1970s, showing examples of the HBCU student involvement in the Civil Rights Movement and later in the anti-war movement. The examples provided are necessarily limited; nevertheless, readers will definitely understand that HBCUs played a vital role in these movements.

Also in this section, the authors contend that equality in higher education remained a problem despite the 1 954 Brown v. Board of Education decision. As noted in various scholarly studies, public and land grant HBCUs have always disproportionately received less funding than their White counterparts (Fairclough, 2007). …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Historically Black Colleges and Universities: An Encyclopedia
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.