Loneliness among University Students: Predictive Power of Sex Roles and Attachment Styles on Loneliness*

By Ilhan, Tahsin | Kuram ve Uygulamada Egitim Bilimleri, Autumn 2012 | Go to article overview

Loneliness among University Students: Predictive Power of Sex Roles and Attachment Styles on Loneliness*


Ilhan, Tahsin, Kuram ve Uygulamada Egitim Bilimleri


Abstract

This study examined the predictive power of sex roles and attachment styles on loneliness. A total of 188 undergraduate students (114 female, and 74 male) from Gazi University completed the Bem Sex Role Inventory, UCLA Loneliness Scale, and Relationship Scales Questionnaire. Hierarchic Multiple Regression analysis and t-test were used to test hypotheses. Results indicated that there was no gender difference in loneliness. Also results revealed from Hierarchic Multiple Regression analyses that loneliness was predicted by fearful attachment, secure attachment, and masculinity, respectively in total samples. Additional analysis indicated that predictive power of masculinity was significant on loneliness only for men.

Key Words

Loneliness, Gender, Sex Roles, Attachment.

Loneliness is one of the most painful experiences (Russell, Peplau, & Cutrona, 1980; Wei, Shaffer, Young, & Zakalik, 2005) that can be encountered in all periods of life, from adolescence to old age (Cacioppo, Hughes, Waite, Hawkley, & Thisted, 2006). Each individual can define the loneliness issue in his or her own terms, regardless of ethnic origin, religion, socio-economic status, gender or age (Rokach, 2004). However, loneliness is by nature a subjective experience, which can be evaluated according to what a person expects from his or her relationships with others and the personal satisfaction obtained from these relationships. People may perceive themselves as lonely in a crowd while they may not feel loneliness when they are alone (Qualter & Munn, 2002). Peplau and Perlman (1982) define loneliness as an unpleasant subjective psychological state when happens inconsistency difference between existing social relationships and desired social relationships. In the literature some disagreement exists in terms of whether loneliness is unidimensional or not. For example, Russell, Peplau, and Cutrona (1980) assume that loneliness is a unidimensional universal phenomenon affecting all aspects of life. On the other hand, Weiss conceptualizes that loneliness has two dimensions: Social loneliness and emotional loneliness. Also Sadler and Johnson (1980) claim that loneliness is a multidimensional construct consisted of cosmic, social, interpersonal, and emotional.

In last three decades, researches on loneliness have significantly contributed on understanding of antecedents and consequences of loneliness. In this studies, some factors such as social skills deficits (Deniz, Hamarta, & Ari, 2005; DiTommaso, Brannan-McNulty, Ross, & Burgess, 2003), negative expectations and attributions (Jones, Hobbs, & Hockenbury, 1982; Peplau, Russell, & Heim, 1979; Vitkus & Horowitz, 1987), shyness (Wei, Shaffer Young, & Zakalik, 2005), unsecure attachment (Bogaerts, Vanheule, & Desmet, 2006; DiTommaso, Brannen, & Burgers, 2005), deficiency in perception of social support (Yilmaz, Yilmaz, & Karaca, 2008) and maladaptive family structure (Demirci-Yoraz & Demir, 2009) are shown as reasons of loneliness. Depend on degree and aspect of loneliness, physiological and psychological problems such as depression (Alpass & Neville, 2003; Cacioppo et al., 2006; Weeks, Michela, Peplau, & Bragg, 1980), cardio-vascular problems (Hawkley, Burleson, Berntson, & Cacioppo, 2003), suicide attempts (Wenz, 1977), substance uses (McWhirter, 1990), poor life satisfaction (Çeçen, 2007a) could occur.

Weiss (1973) has pointed out attachment styles as one of the reasons for loneliness. According to Weiss, loneliness is separation distress when someone leaves a person to whom he or she is attached. Firstly, when the relationship between a child and mother or caregiver did not establish a feeling of confidence in early childhood, the feeling of loneliness occurs each time the person leaves an object of significant emotional importance. According to attachment theory (Bowlby, 1969, 1973), the ties between child and the mother, or the person who looks after the child, brings children their first understanding that they are not alone while discovering the world and they have someone to trust.

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Loneliness among University Students: Predictive Power of Sex Roles and Attachment Styles on Loneliness*
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.