50 Years of Change

Americas Quarterly, Fall 2012 | Go to article overview
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50 Years of Change

50 Years of Change and Progress in Civil Society, Politics, Economics, and Philanthropy


Rockefeller Foundation is created.


Ford Foundation is created by Edsel Ford.


Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maíz y Trigo (CIMMYT) is established to increase producivity of wheat and maize to ensure global food security.


Juan Perón is elected president of Argentina.

The UN Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) is established.

President Juan Perón and his wife, Eva, wave from the balcony of the Casa Rosada in 1950.


The Ford Foundation receives its major endowment from the wills of Henry Ford I (1863-1947) and Edsel Ford (1893-1943).


Economists Hans Singer and Raúl Prebisch, above, publish their thesis on declining terms of trade, setting the classic dependency argument of underdevelopment.


Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales (FLACSO) is created.

The population division of ECLAC (CELADE) is created.


Instituto Torcuato di Tella is created in Buenos Aires.

Venezuelan political parties sign the Pacto de Punto Fijo to guarantee the new democracy after a coup removes Marcos Pérez Jiménez.


The Inter-American Commission on Human Rights is created.


United States imposes a trade embargo on Cuba.

Resignation of President Janio Quadros initiates a political crisis in Brazil.


Ford Foundation creates offices in Rio de Janeiro, Mexico City, Buenos Aires and Bogotá and initiates 50 years of support for higher education, poverty relief, human rights, and democracy.

The Instituto Latinoamericano y del Caribe de Planificación Ecónomica y Social (ILPES) is created in Santiago to support governments in planning and public administration.


Ford Foundation's office in Santiago, Chile, is created.

Fundación Mexicana para el Desarrollo Rural is created.

Ford Foundation initiates 37 years of support for the Colegio de México to promote fields such as social sciences and humanities, local and regional development, women's studies, and participation in international forums.


Ford Foundation supports agricultural development and partners with the Rockefeller Foundation to establish research centers in Mexico, Colombia, Nigeria, and the Philippines.

A coup d'état removes President João Goulart in Brazil.

Instituto de Estudios Peruanos (IEP) is created to promote social sciences in Peru.

Ford Foundation makes a grant to the Universidad de Chile to conduct research and train scientists in the field of reproductive biology.


Instituto de Estudios Superiores de Administración (IESA) is founded in Venezuela.

Ford Foundation's office in Lima, Peru, is created.


A post-graduate degree in political science at the Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais in Brazil is established to promote local leadership and careers in government.

Ford Foundation initiates support of the Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro to promote social sciences in Brazil


Ford Foundation's population program begins in Brazil and Venezuela.

Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT) is created in Colombia.


William Gaud, former United States Agency for International Development (USAID) director, coins the term "Green Revolution" referring to a series of research, development and technology transfers that occurred between the 1940s and 1970s that increased agricultural production around the world.

Student and civilian protesters are killed by soldiers in Tlatelolco in Mexico.


Centro Brasileiro de Análise e Planejamento (CEBRAP) is the first research center created after the impeachment of the political rights of university professors at the Universidad de São Paulo (USP).

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50 Years of Change


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