Training Methods in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: Tradition and Invention

By Friedberg, Robert D.; Brelsford, Gina M. | Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, April 1, 2013 | Go to article overview

Training Methods in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: Tradition and Invention


Friedberg, Robert D., Brelsford, Gina M., Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy


Cognitive behavioral supervisors influence new generations of clients and clinicians. Accordingly, the task is meaningful, rewarding, challenging, and critically important. This article describes traditional and unconventional approaches to supervising clinicians in cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Traditional methods such as the use of the Cognitive Therapy Rating Scale, videotape/audiotape review, live supervision, and cotherapy are reviewed. Further, inventive procedures for teaching supervisees cognitive flexibility, empathy, tolerance for ambiguity, and remaining steadfast when faced with negative emotional arousal are explained. Popular media, improvisation and acting exercises, and working with professional actors as teaching methods are explained.

Keywords: training; supervision; cognitive behavioral therapy; clinical education

In an early work on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) supervision, Perris (1993) defined supervision as "an interpersonal process in which two or more persons almost always with quite a different level of professional competence, participate actively" (p. 30). Supervision is more than an experienced clinician imparting wisdom to a relative novice. Rather, it is a comprehensive process that requires each person's full interpersonal engagement. Supervisory activity assumes many forms; supervisors work to improve supervisees' declarative knowledge, procedural understanding, technical skills, and self-reflection. In addition, supervisors review trainees' progress notes, assessment reports, case conceptualization write-ups, and other paperwork. Ledley, Marx, and Heimberg (2010) noted that supervisors not only teach trainees technical and conceptual skills but also coach them to become clinicians. In short, supervision is the way trainees' raw skills become refined (Newman, 2010). This article presents various conventional as well as uncommon methods for teaching beginning clinicians how to do cognitive therapy.

Bennett-Levy (2006) conceptualized clinical training along three interrelated dimensions: declarative, procedural, and self-reflective knowledge. According to Bennett-Levy, declarative knowledge refers to acquisition of factual knowledge. Procedural knowledge depends on factual knowledge but transcends this understanding by putting information into practice. Procedural knowledge incorporates actionable rules, strategies, and skills. Self-reflection is a "meta-cognitive skill that accompanies the observation, interpretation, and evaluation of one's own thoughts, emotions, actions, and outcomes" (Bennett-Levy, 2006, p. 60). Bennett-Levy stated that self-reflective knowledge builds clinical wisdom.

Binder (1999) noted that declarative knowledge that remains unapplied is essentially inert data. Boswell and Castonguay (2007) remarked that typically, trainees find applying cognitive interventions quite straight forward in a classroom setting. However, once they are confronted with a real client in a therapy office, they discover the genuine complexity associated with clinical care. Accordingly, Rosenbaum and Ronen (1998) argued that a complex skill such as psychotherapy must be taught experientially. They employed the analogy of learning to swim. Although a person could study the mechanics of swimming and the art of difficult strokes, their knowledge must be put into action in water. An abstract, intellectualized grasp of the process does not suffice. Similarly, cognitive behavioral psychotherapy must be practiced in order for supervisees to learn.

Ladany (2007) complained that criteria for admittance to graduate school are not linked to factors that predict competence in psychotherapy. Friedberg, Gorman, and Beidel (2009) argued that training in important but nonspecific factors such as genuineness, empathy, and warmth is misguided. Indeed, training a student in genuineness seems oxymoronic. Rather, training should focus on teachable knowledge, skills, and attitudes. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Training Methods in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: Tradition and Invention
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.