2 + 2 + 2: Collaborating to Enhance Educational Opportunities for Native Americans

By Nichols, Laurie Stenberg; Nichols, Tim | Journal of Family and Consumer Sciences, Spring 1998 | Go to article overview

2 + 2 + 2: Collaborating to Enhance Educational Opportunities for Native Americans


Nichols, Laurie Stenberg, Nichols, Tim, Journal of Family and Consumer Sciences


Abstract: A collaborative 2 + 2 + 2 agreement between South Dakota's reservation high schools, tribal colleges, and South Dakota State University's College of Family and Consumer Sciences and Agriculture and Biological Sciences will increase the number of Native Americans who are able to graduate with baccalaureate degrees. Program completers will be prepared to work toward solutions to some of the most pressing challenges facing tribal people today: land and resource management, economic development, and family and community well-being. Articulation agreements, faculty immersion, curriculum review and revision, and development of student support systems and experiential learning programs are integral components of the project.

Despite almost 500 years of decimation, the American Indian population is growing in both power and numbers (Davis, 1996). The 1990 census reported 1.8 million Indians resided in the United States (Davis). Recent statistics indicate the birth rate for American Indians eligible for Indian Health Service benefits was 30.3 per 1,000, nearly double the 1987 birth rate for the U.S. "all races" population (Stuart, 1987; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1991).

South Dakota:

Native Americans in Context

South Dakota, where nearly 10% of the state's population is Native American, is acutely aware of these demographic trends. The state is home to nine reservations, which constitute almost 20% of the state's land mass. In 1995, approximately 12% of the nation's Native American children resided in South Dakota (Kids Count, 1997). On several South Dakota reservations nearly one-half of the population is under the age of 18 (Baer, Arwood, & Spencer, 1994).

Close to 80% of Indian children in South Dakota are born and will be raised on a reservation (Baer et al., 1994). The picture is sobering-instances of poverty, unemployment, and fetal alcohol syndrome are among the nation's highest on Indian reservations in South Dakota. On Pine Ridge Reservation, located in Southwestern South Dakota, unemployment reaches 60% or higher (Boyer, 1997).

South Dakota welfare data support these grim statistics. Currently, 67% of the state's welfare families are Native American (M. Vogel, personal communication, July 15,1997). The educational realities are also harsh; many young Native Americans drop out of school, and enrollment in post-secondary education is less than 1% (Boyer).

Despite these odds, a sense of hope and renewal is emerging within South Dakota Indian communities. Native Americans believe education is the key to social renewal. Since 1972, five tribal colleges have been formed in South Dakota. With missions to offer a culturally relevant education for tribal people, these institutions are governed by the respective tribes and are offering native people access to higher education (Boyer, 1997). In 1994, by congressional act, the nation's 27 tribal colleges gained land grant status. With land grant status came an expanded mission of research and outreach to meet the needs of respective reservations. A recent Carnegie Foundation report called on state land grant universities to support the work of tribal colleges. The report urges institutions to develop strong, mutually beneficial relationships (Boyer).

Recent and ongoing conversations with tribal leaders in South Dakota indicate that among the greatest educational needs are those of health and nutrition, food safety and food service, early childhood education, economic development, housing, family well-being, and community viability. Despite the congruence between these needs and the mission of the Family and Consumer Sciences profession, few native people are choosing to focus their education in these areas. In the College of Family and Consumer Sciences at South Dakota State University (SDSU), of nearly 600 undergraduate majors, four are Native American. Similarly, of the 14,200 members of the American Association of Family and Consumer Sciences, 230 are Native Americanonly 1. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

2 + 2 + 2: Collaborating to Enhance Educational Opportunities for Native Americans
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.