The IDEA of an Adequate Education for All: Ensuring Success for Incarcerated Youth with Disabilities

By Sheldon-Sherman, Jennifer A. L. | Journal of Law and Education, Spring 2013 | Go to article overview

The IDEA of an Adequate Education for All: Ensuring Success for Incarcerated Youth with Disabilities


Sheldon-Sherman, Jennifer A. L., Journal of Law and Education


I. INTRODUCTION

Juvenile crime is a significant problem in the United States. In 2009, U.S. courts handled over 1.5 million delinquency cases, resulting in the disposition of approximately 5,000 delinquency cases per day.1 That same year, juvenile correctional facilities housed 315,500 young people at some point between referral of their proceeding to court and ultimate case disposition.2 Of these 315,000, courts ordered 133,800 youth to residential placement facilities.3 Overall, 27% of youth adjudicated in delinquency cases were detained and ultimately incarcerated.4

Youth reentry and juvenile recidivism also continue to be national policy concerns. Estimates suggest that 24% of juveniles are re-incarcerated every year nationwide,5 while some states report recidivism rates as high as 55%.6

Scholars and policymakers are divided on how to best address youth crime and ensure proper juvenile offender rehabilitation. However, many agree that any successful institutionalization designed to rehabilitate youth, reintroduce them to society, and reduce recidivism must focus on education. A 1996 Rand Corporation study, for example, found that of all crime prevention methods, "education is the most cost-effective."7 Higher levels of academic achievement correlate with lower rates of recidivism.8 In California in particular, youth parolees are three to five times more likely to succeed on parole if they earn a high school diploma or GED prior to their release.9 Mounting evidence likewise supports the causal link between poor academic performance, school dropout, unemployment or underemployment, and law-violating behavior.10

The positive effects of education extend beyond the juvenile justice system; marginal literacy has a significant relationship to poverty and unemployment as an adult." By one estimate, the poverty rate for individuals in the workforce without a high school diploma is three times that of those who have graduated from high school.'2

Youth with learning, developmental, and behavioral disabilities are at an increased risk both for educational failure and incarceration. They are more likely than their non-disabled peers to experience school failure and subsequent poor adult outcomes.13 One of the first large-scale national evaluations of youth with disabilities found that approximately 50% of this population would drop out of school.14 A follow-up study indicated that the consequences of school failure and delinquency are related: 75% of these same school drop-outs were arrested within five years of exiting the educational system.15

As compared to the general public school population, a disproportionate number of youth with disabilities are incarcerated in juvenile correctional facilities.16 Arrests are commonly associated with lower school achievement scores and disability,17 especially for youth with specific learning disabilities or emotional disturbances.18 While schools identify and certify approximately 9% to 13% of public school students as eligible for services under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act ("IDEA"),19 studies show that a larger percentage of youth in the juvenile justice system - 30% to 70%20 - have disabilities.21 The most common conditions are "specific learning disability" and "behavioral and emotional disorder."22 One study reported that 47.7% of youth incarcerated in juvenile corrections facilities are identified with some form of an emotional disorder.23

Helping youth, especially those who suffer from one or more disabilities, acquire educational skills is one of the most effective means of reducing recidivism and enabling youth to exit the juvenile justice system and become productive, contributing members of society. Even academically challenged youth with a history of disability and school failure can make significant achievement gains in a short period of time if given a sufficient level of academic support.24

This article focuses on the education of youth with disabilities in the juvenile justice system, with particular emphasis on the role of litigation in reforming educational services for incarcerated youth.

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

The IDEA of an Adequate Education for All: Ensuring Success for Incarcerated Youth with Disabilities
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.