Migration, Development and Psychology: Looking for a Link

By Sotelo, Maria Jose; Gimeno, Luis | Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, January 1, 2003 | Go to article overview

Migration, Development and Psychology: Looking for a Link


Sotelo, Maria Jose, Gimeno, Luis, Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal


The authors explore an alternative way of analyzing the relationship between development, migration and psychology. The method is based on the first principal component of national net immigrants' data in the Human Development Index rating domain. Results show that the main sources of emigrants are countries with moderate development and the main sink countries are ranked from Human Development Index Rating 10 to 30. This could be in part due to a psychological reason: "If one is poor among poor, incentives to migrate might be lower than if one is poor among (relatively) rich".

PSYCHOLOGICAL DETERMINANTS OF MIGRATION

The complex relationship of migration and development has suggested many theoretical models concerning the main determinants of migration. (Gahatak, Levine, & Price, 1996, for a review, Massey, Arango, Hugo, Kouaouci, & Taylor, 1993). In brief, migration takes place when the attainable future income in the host country is higher than the income in the home country plus migration costs. But if this is so, how can we justify the small number of immigrants from the developing countries to the industrialized world, despite the enormous differences in living conditions? There must be migration-impeding factors and migration-favoring factors related more to the individual than to the economy. In a recent review Rotte and Vogler (2000) suggested two: the uncertainty of unemployment or the danger of being mistaken that leads to an involuntary return to the home country and the relative income situation which is based on results of group research in social psychology and sociology - the in-group comparison. There is an incentive to migrate when there are income differentials relative to a reference group but not when there are absolute differences. So to be poor among relatively rich provides a greater incentive to migrate than to be poor among poor.

HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX RATING

Since 1990, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) has published a series of annual Human Development Reports in which an index called the Human Development Index (HDI) is computed for each country. The HDI measures human development through the use of three factors: longevity (mean life expectancy in the nation), knowledge (rate of literacy and school population) and purchasing power (Gross National Product per person). Although there has been much discussion of the representativeness of HDI as a measure of life quality in the literature, (Noorbakhsh, 1998; Sagar & Najam, 1998), HDI has become the most widely used yardstick of human development and a reference as a socioeconomic indicator.

METHOD

HYPOTHESIS

According to the two psychological reasons in the first section those countries with low development should not be an important source of international immigrants. The main source should be middle-developed countries where it is possible to find most of the advantages of developed countries, but only for a restricted part of the population (relative income situation) and the main sink should be those developed countries with a need of workers, typically those ranking from 10 to 30 in the HDI ranking (uncertainty).

In this study we propose an alternative method of exploring the relationship between economic development and migration in a country. There are two differences. Firstly, instead of the HDI, we use the HDI rating (the relative order of a country with respect to HDI) and secondly, instead of immigrant number the first principal component in the HDI rating domain is used.

DATA AND OVERVIEW

International migration data used in this study were extracted from the 2000 US Census Bureau International Database (http://www.countrywatch.com/cv/ query.asp). It is quantified as net migration entering (leaving) the country and its unit is net-migration/1000 population in midyear. Human Development Index rating and HDI values were obtained from the 2000 Human Development Report from the United Nations Development Program (UNDP).

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Migration, Development and Psychology: Looking for a Link
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.