The FY1999 Security Assistance Budget Request
[The following material has been extracted from the Department of State's Congressional Presentation for Foreign Operations, Fiscal Year 1999 (FY1999 CP). This annual document supports funding requests for U.S. Budget Function 150 which includes all of the foreign operations program appropriations accounts (including security assistance) administered by the Department of State or for which the State Department provides policy guidance. The FY1999 CP provides separate budget funding requests and supporting information for each of the U. S. foreign operations programs. In addition to displaying appropriations accounts with regional and country justifications, the FY1999 CP also identifies required appropriations by strategic goals in relation to the Department of State's International Affairs Strategic Plan that was presented to Congress in September 1997. The excerpted material below includes Secretary of State Madeleine K. Albright's introduction to the FY1999 CP plus the requested funding and program descriptions for the four U.S-funded security assistance programs, i.e., Foreign Military Financing (FMF), International Military Education and Training (IMET), Economic Support Fund (ESF), and Voluntary Peacekeeping Operations (PKO), plus related accounts.]
Statement by Secretary of State Madeleine K. Albright
Maintaining U.S. leadership in the global community requires the steadfast and committed investment of policymakers and stakeholders. The international affairs budget is an appeal for a bipartisan consensus to provide the resources necessary for the people and programs required to enhance the security, prosperity, and freedom of the American people.
Some may ask why we need to fund a major international affairs effort. After all, our economy is booming, domestic crime has declined, the budget is in balance, and there are always important priorities here at home. Why should we spend valuable taxpayer resources on U.S. international goals? It's a fair question, with a solid answer. Today, more than ever before, the international affairs budget touches the lives of all Americans. It does so by advancing seven basic national interests:
The international affairs budget protects the security and vital geopolitical interests of the United States.
Funding under the Freedom Support Act helps the new states of the former Soviet Union make the transition to market economies and democracy. Our goal is clear: we want to live at peace with all these countries, to trade with them, and to work with them so that we may prosper together. In this budget we request a substantial increase for our Partnership for Freedom Initiative. This prudent investment in our security pales in size to the trillions of dollars we spent fighting the Cold War or the trillions we would spend in the future were reform efforts to fail and our relationships to become adversarial once again.
Funding under the SEED Act for Central Europe and for our Partnership for Peace helps the countries of this region complete the wrenching transition from Communism to free-market democracy, and from the Warsaw Pact to full participation in the defense of European freedom and security. These funds include programs for the people of Bosnia to make continued progress in their struggle to build a stable, united, and democratic nation in the aftermath of a bitter and brutal war.
Few areas of the world combine such political and strategic importance with such chronic instability as the Middle East. Our budget request includes funding for the military and economic assistance programs which back our diplomatic commitment to the Middle East Peace Process. In addition to supporting Israel and Egypt, we are also seeking assistance for Jordan and the Palestinians, in order to cement support for the overall Arab-Israeli peace process by helping the existing accords produce the benefits the people of the region looked forward to when the agreements were signed.
Throughout the world, we defend our security by working to prevent the spread of weapons of mass destruction. This budget pays for the verification system of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. It supports programs required to secure or destroy materials and technology related to weapons of mass destruction, to maintain cooperation between our military and that of present or prospective allies, and to build the security structure and alliances that will ensure that Americans live at peace far into the 21' Century.
This budget promotes America's prosperity.
The budget increases for the Export-Import Bank and the Trade and Development Agency to give America's businesses the tools they need to compete in the global marketplace. This matters to Americans because trade is twice as important in our domestic economy now than it was a quarter century ago, and it has fueled one-third of the sustained economic growth we have enjoyed these past five years. Today, 12 million American jobs are supported by exports and these jobs pay on the average 15 percent more than others.
Our bilateral and multilateral assistance programs benefit American security by promoting stability around the globe, and they contribute to our prosperity by expanding overseas markets for American goods and services.
We continue in this budget to fund global efforts to open markets and promote free trade. Trade with developing nations is one of the fastest growing segments of our economy. For example, this year we include development assistance funds for a Partnership for Economic Growth and Opportunity in Africa. This initiative will serve humanitarian and democracybuilding initiatives and will help accelerate the role of Africa as an important export market.
The international affairs budget protects American citizens abroad and safeguards America's borders
Americans travel abroad more often than ever before. The FY1999 budget funds passport services and the assistance provided by U.S. Embassies and Consulates to American students, tourists, business people, and others who need emergency medical assistance or require help while overseas.
State Department visa services abroad enable millions of visitors to come to the United States from around the world each year. Foreign tourism to the U.S. brings in billions of dollars and creates hundreds of thousands of jobs in America. Our country is among the world's top vacation destinations, and the number of visitors to the U.S. grows each year.
Our Embassies are the front line in enforcing our immigration policies to screen out drug smugglers, terrorists, and other criminals whose entry into the United States could endanger our citizens. This budget protects U.S. borders and deters illegal immigration by assisting several nations in strengthening their own domestic economies, so that their citizens may enjoy a more prosperous future.
This budget protects Americans from international narcotics trafficking, terrorism, and other crimes.
In today's world, the most distant threats can arrive at our doorstep in a matter of seconds. Just as progress in business and telecommunications has exponentially increased the speed by which transactions are carried out around the world, so too have the threats posed by narcotics trafficking, crime, and terrorism. Interdiction and assistance programs safeguard us directly by attacking the root causes of criminal activity. Our anti-narcotics programs involve us in cooperative law enforcement efforts, drug eradication, and alternative development-all vital to achieving our Andean initiative and substantially reducing world coca production.
The function 150 budget promotes our values, including democracy, human rights, and the rule of law.
Democracy is a necessary precondition to achieving lasting stability and world peace. It is unique form of government that promotes stable transitions and represents popular aspirations. Democracy contributes to all of our national interests, and it is the only system of government that embodies the freedoms we cherish.
Human rights and the rule of law are indispensable components of democracy. Through Development Assistance and Economic Support Funds, we are able to promote fundamental democratic principles around the world, to stop human rights violations, to reform judicial systems, and to train competent parliamentarians.
Our programs this year include: a Great Lakes Initiative to improve the administration of justice and conflict resolution in this strategic and strife-torn part of Africa; the Secretary's Advisory Committee on Religious Freedom Abroad; and the Human Rights and Democracy Fund.
This budget maintains America's long-standing role in providing humanitarian assistance to those in greatest need.
Our Development Assistance and Economic Support Fund programs advance economic development in the poorest countries of the world. These programs demonstrate that prevention is more effective and less costly than crisis intervention. The Child Survival account helps at-risk children experiencing poverty, hunger, or ill-health to reach adulthood.
U.S. disaster assistance and refugee programs respond quickly and flexibly when manmade or natural disasters arise. This year, our budget also proposes an increase in funding to eliminate the threat of landmines to innocent civilians the world over by the year 2010.
Finally, this budget addresses the global challenges of excessive population growth, contagious disease, and environmental degradation.
The rate of world population growth has slowed modestly in recent years due largely to U.S. efforts. Still, 90 million additional children are born every year. Ninety-five percent of them live in developing countries adding stress to scarce food supplies, environmental resources, and health and housing systems. Over-population causes illegal immigration, threatening American communities and institutions.
The United States has sponsored the training of health care professionals worldwide in family planning and reproductive health for more than 40 years. As a result, average family size has declined from six to four in over 28 countries, and the spread of diseases, such as HIV, has been measurably contained. Safeguarding Americans from contagious diseases can be accomplished only if we prevent the dismal conditions in which they flourish.
Ozone depletion, soil erosion, water, soil, and air pollution are not insurmountable problems; however, they are serious global challenges that could have disastrous consequences if allowed to go unchecked. They could exacerbate health conditions and destroy the potential availability of irreplaceable natural resources for a burgeoning population.
The FY1999 budget proposes to fund several operational strategies to prevent irreparable harm to our limited global resources. Through bilateral and multilateral assistance programs, such as the Global Environmental Facility and our voluntary and assessed contributions to international organizations, we plan to support better understanding and improved resource management practices throughout the world.
Whether our paramount concern is to protect our physical security, to guarantee our prosperity, or to live safer, healthier lives, the FY1999 international affairs budget serves the interests of each and every American. Reaching out beyond our borders is the best way to reinforce the fabric of our own livelihood-our jobs, our resources, and our values.
To achieve our important foreign affairs goals, we must maintain the intricate international security and economic architecture we set up after World War II. As the driving force in the establishment of the United Nations, we remain among its greatest beneficiaries. Having established the Bretton Woods system, we gain continually from the worldwide financial stability it proffers. We must not allow the influence of these two international organizations to weaken, nor our central leadership position in them to wane. We must invest our membership share in the United Nations, international organizations, and the multilateral development banks. We must also sustain our commitment to the New Arrangements to Borrow and the International Monetary Fund. The FY1999 budget and FY1998 supplemental appropriations propose to retain for the United States a strong, influential voice in these institutions.
The international affairs budget provides the funds necessary to maintain a capable and reliable cadre of skilled professionals who serve in U.S. Embassies and Consulates overseas and in our nation's Capitol. They perform services and maintain operations of important government agencies that advance American interests around the globe. Among these are: the Department of State, the Department of the Treasury, the Department of Agriculture, the Department of Commerce, the Agency for International Development, the U.S. Information Agency, and the Peace Corps.
In today's world, it is essential that we keep our alliances strong, that we respond rapidly and definitively to security threats, that we retain a prominent place in international markets, that we assist Americans overseas, that our compassion reaches those suffering disaster, that we are innovators of sound natural resources management, and that we protect human life now and for future generations. For these reasons, it is clear that this international affairs budget deserves our strongest support.
International Affairs Mission Statement
The purpose of United States foreign policy is to create a more secure, prosperous, and democratic world for the benefit of the American people. In an increasingly interdependent and rapidly changing world, international events affect every American. Successful U.S. international leadership is essential to security at home, better jobs and a higher standard of living, a healthier environment, and safe travel and conduct of business abroad.
Under the direction of the President and the Secretary of State, the United States conducts relations with foreign governments, international organizations, and others to pursue U.S. national interests and promote American values. The goals of U.S. foreign policy are to:
Secure peace; deter aggression; prevent, and defuse, and manage crises; halt the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction; and advance arms control and disarmament;
Expand exports, open markets, assist American business, foster economic growth, and promote sustainable development;
Protect American citizens abroad and safeguard the borders of the United States;
Combat International terrorism, crime, and narcotics trafficking;
Support the establishment and consolidation of democracies, and uphold human rights;
Provide humanitarian assistance to victims of crisis and disaster; and
Improve the global environment, stabilize world population growth, and protect human health.
To advance the interests of the nation and the American people through foreign affairs leadership, the U.S. Government requires a strong international presence; a highly qualified, motivated, and diverse Civil and Foreign Service serving at home and abroad; extensive communication with the public, both foreign and domestic; and the political, military, and economic means to carry out the nation's foreign policies.
U.S. International Affairs Strategic Goals
Regional stability-ensure that local and regional instabilities do not threaten the security and well-being of the United States or its allies.
Eliminate threat of weapons of mass destruction or destabilizing conventional arms.
Open markets to the free flow of goods, services, and capital.
Expand U.S. exports to $1.2 trillion by 2000.
Increase global economic growth.
Promote growth in developing and transitional economies.
Enhance security and safety of Americans abroad.
Control the flow of immigrants and non-immigrants.
Minimize the impact of international crime on the United States and its citizens.
Reduce levels of entry of illegal drugs.
Reduce international terrorist attacks in the U.S.
Increase adherence to democratic principles.
Humanitarian Response - minimize the human costs of conflict and natural disasters.
Secure a sustainable global environment to protect the United States and its citizens from the effects of international environmental degradation.
Early stabilization of world population.
Protect human health and reduce the spread of infectious diseases.
Public Diplomacy-international information, education, and cultural exchanges.
Diplomatic Activities and Readiness-capital, human resources, and operations of the international affairs agencies.
Foreign Military Financing
U.S. Foreign Policy Objectives:
The principal means of ensuring American security is through the deterrence of potential aggressors who would threaten the United States or its allies. Maintaining the strength of our military is the most critical element of our strategy for achieving this objective. But our military strength alone is not enough. Diplomacy and international programs go hand in hand with military force to prevent and resolve conflicts without having to resort to force. Our security assistance programs help U.S. allies to become capable coalition partners as well as to defend their own security. By strengthening our alliances, building cooperative military relationships, and stabilizing regional military balances, security assistance programs protect American security and reduce the likelihood of war. The United States has a strong stake in helping its allies and coalition partners to strengthen their defense so they can share the common defense burden.
Foreign Military Financing (FMF) enables key friends and allies to improve their defense capabilities by financing acquisition of U.S. military articles, services, and training. As FMF helps countries provide for legitimate defense needs, it also promotes U.S. national security interests by strengthening coalitions with friends and allies, cementing cooperative bilateral foreign military relationships, and enhancing interoperability with U.S. forces.
Both a grant and loan program, FMF is distinguished from Foreign Military Sales (FMS), the system through which government-to-government military sales are made. In general, FMF provides financing for FMS. By enabling selected friends and allies to purchase needed U.S. defense goods and services, FMF has the beneficial byproduct of encouraging demand for U.S. systems, which also contributes to a strong U.S. defense industrial base-a critical element of the national defense strategy. FMF financing for equipment sales can lengthen production runs, which can result in lower unit costs for Department of Defense (DoD) purchases and create jobs for Americans.
Key objectives of FMF are:
To assist allies and friends in financing procurement of United States defense articles, and services to help strengthen their self-defense capabilities and meet their legitimate security needs;
To meet urgent humanitarian needs by improving the capability of the armed forces of foreign countries to respond to natural and manmade