A Literature Review of Computers and Pedagogy for Journalism and Mass Communication Education
Hoag, Anne M., Bhattacharya, Sandhya S., Helsel, Jeffrey, Hu, Yifeng, et al., Journalism & Mass Communication Educator
A growing body of scholarship on computers and pedagogy encompasses a broad range of topics. This review is focused upon research judged to have implications within journalism and mass communication education. Broadly defined, the literature considers computer use in course design and teaching, student attributes in a digital learning context, the role of digital information in student learning outcomes, and the role of faculty attitudes.
Course Design and Teaching
The adoption of instructional computer pedagogy is associated with substantial changes to the configuration and format of a broad range of pedagogical practices, including increased student responsibility and active learning engagement. Course planning now may take into consideration increased faculty and student access to an extended range of information resources, student participation through out-of-class online interaction, and the asynchronous and immediate distribution of class-inclusive materials and information,1 as well as negative attributes such as increased access to materials that may be plagiarized and data that may be inaccurate.
A comparative literature in which digitally enhanced pedagogies and curricula among disciplines are examined has yet to emerge. Nonetheless, disciplinary adoption is widely observable in disciplines outside of communication such as medicine and geography.2
One branch of inquiry has examined the relation of computers to new skill acquisition. In some instances, for example, students may become engaged at higher levels of cognition through application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation of class materials.3 In contrast to traditional environments, the integration of computers into a curriculum, however, requires new learning skills in order to manipulate Internet and computer network searching and to construct useful database archives.4
Within journalism and mass communication education, these newly acquired skills may generate increased immediacy of reporting while integrating reporting procedures involving a variety of media.5 One study investigated the adoption of computer-assisted reporting skills over the past decade among journalism and mass communication programs. The majority of the programs surveyed provided instruction in Internet utilization and included introductory skills for searching newspaper archives and online databases.6 E-mail and other electronic information forms may also play a relevant role and at least one study argued the importance of Internet mastery to public relations curricula.7
An often-expressed goal is the facilitation of active student engagement in learning, through activities that facilitate acquisition of knowledge from sources other than the traditional lecture, and by increased student-to-student and student-to-faculty interaction.8 Computer networks have been used to expand the learning community to include experts and industry professionals,9 although the most common usage appears to involve the creation of computer networks for student-to-student out-of-class discussion.10 Gunaratne and Lee also point to the use of digital networks to make library availability an integral element of curriculum and instruction.11
Access issues are not limited to mainstream populations. A developing body of literature highlights the possibility of extending the level of access to disabled students with vision, hearing, and mobility problems.12
Several scholars have examined the relations among student characteristics, computers and learning. Two categories or subdivisions are prominent in the literature: individual differences (prior computer experience, attitude, learning style preferences) and group differences (gender, ethnicity, disability). Few such published articles in communication journals were found, so we turned to education journals where the topic is receiving greater attention. Our review is confined to the most common types of studies that also have implications for journalism and communication education. Overall, the current literature yields inconclusive results. Even so, the following detail provides some insights for journalism and communication education, particularly in the areas of student attitudes and gender differences.
Experience. We found more than fifteen studies examining students' prior experience with computers in education, and seven studies in particular represented this concept. The studies reviewed here provide an inconclusive picture; some show that student success in computer-driven classes is significantly correlated with prior experience,13 whereas others have found no relationship between experience and student performance.14 Holt and Crocker, more specifically, examined the effect of past experiences on participants' motivation to predict their performance in a computer-involved class15. Results indicated some evidence that the participants' pre-training motivation was moderated by their prior negative experiences in predicting test performance. One study of adults and college students suggests that experience with computers has only modest effects on computer-based assessment performance and that this can interact with test type.16
Attitude. Research on "attitudes toward computers" (ATC) often links attitude with prior experience with computers. A great deal of so-called ATC research has been conducted in non-educational settings (i.e., the workplace), but since it has implications for teaching and learning, we discuss it here. Increased computer use has a positive effect on perceived computer self-confidence, as well as on computer-related attitude.17 An early study found that attitudes toward computers are generally thought to be composed of two factors: 1) beliefs that the computer is a beneficial tool, and 2) beliefs that computers are autonomous entities.18 Despite the passage of time and the dramatic changes in the technology, these two distinct beliefs persist and may be related to computer use.19 The importance of positive attitudes toward computers has been considered a prerequisite for developing computer skills.20 As mentioned earlier, few studies from communications in this area exist. However, one from the well-known communication apprehension research tradition merits discussion here. Scott and Rockwell found that computer anxiety and communication apprehension in college students is a significant predictor of future computer use.21
Learning Style Preferences. A recent report from the Institute for Higher Education Policy expressed concern that research does not consider learning style differences in relation to computer-mediated learning.22 Several researchers have attempted to address this concern empirically but at this time the record is inconclusive. Some research reported that learning styles and student performance in computer-aided and computer-mediated courses are positively correlated,23 while others argue there is no relationship.24
While experience, attitude and learning style preferences seem to be the major research categories in what we term "individual differences," comparatively more research on demographic or "group differences" seems to have been published. We categorize these studies as gender, race/ ethnicity, and disability.
Gender. Past research has found significant differences with regard to gender and educational computer use, although the nature of the differences varies. There is no single pattern of research centered on gender. A 1980s study of gender differences in attitudes to computers found that males are more likely to take computer courses and to have computers at home.25 This technology gender gap has narrowed and so these findings may no longer hold. Throughout the 1980s and into the 1990s, several studies of ATC consistently found no gender differences in attitudes toward computers.26
Yet more recent research shows educators still need to consider gender when adopting computers for teaching. In an examination of student attitudes toward the introduction of a Web component into a general biology course, women's attitudes toward Web-based learning was found to be significantly more positive than that of men's.27 Females were also found to use the Web more often than males. By contrast, scattered studies detect instances where female students may be disadvantaged. In a survey of 375 Iranian undergraduate students, women showed stronger beliefs in equal gender ability and competence of computer use, but expressed lower confidence levels in their abilities to work with computer.28 Chou contrasted the comparative effects of cognitive style and training method on learners' computer self-efficacy and learning performance and found that men generally had higher computer self-efficacy.29 In a microeconomics course, women would do worse on tests in an online learning environment compared to a traditional face-to-face setting.30
Race/Ethnicity. Fewer studies on race and ethnicity have been published and so it is not surprising that no single theme has emerged. While some studies found significant racial/ethnic differences in computer use for education,31 others did not.32 Among those that did detect differences, there are useful insights. For example, an investigation of possible differences between racial groups in coeducational and same-sex schools in attitudes, uses and career interests in technology indicated some differences and some commonalities between racial groups, namely, that Hispanics showed significantly higher interest in computer careers than any other racial group.33 However, the study found no significant differences among racial groups' self-perceptions of their ability to acquire skills for a technology career.
Disability. Another category of research is centered on the accommodation of students with disabilities.34 Early research, which examined the relationship between disabilities and computers and learning, argued that computers and the Internet benefited students.35 According to Hasselbring and Glaser, technology enables students with severe disabilities to become active learners in the classroom alongside students without disabilities.36 They also argue that computer technology facilitates a broader range of educational activities to meet a variety of needs for students with mild learning disorders.
To summarize, little research in this category has been conducted in communication education settings (which we see as an opportunity for future research). Even so, the greater body of research on student differences in other disciplines has not yet yielded useful trends for teachers in journalism and mass communication. However, given the female student majority now enrolled in communication programs, we feel even the limited evidence of potential learning disadvantages of computer technology for women merits further study. Perhaps the 30-year tradition of ATC research can suggest a course of action: if there is a belief that computers are beneficial, and increased use and positive attitudes are linked, careful course design can overcome the disadvantages reported in recent research.
We considered more than five-dozen published studies that focused on the relationship between computers in education and learning outcomes, most in scholarly communications-centered journals. This set represented research about every context for the educational use of computers introduced in this review: computer-aided, computer-mediated, online and distance education. By "outcomes" we mean the broad set of dependent variables emerging now from the journalism and communications education literature. Such outcomes generally fall into two categories: measures of student learning and other benefits and measures of student perceptions, attitudes and beliefs the most common being satisfaction and perceived learning. Table 1 depicts our attempt to classify the range of outcomes addressed in recent research.
On balance, the recent record suggests there may well be no significant difference between traditional teaching and computer-mediated instruction when traditional measures of student learning such as performance on tests or final course grades are considered.37 However, other educational benefits that are linked to computer-aided and mediated learning environments may not lend themselves to easy measurement and therefore are often overlooked. Examples include software skills and online interaction skills that develop as a result of the learning process. In a few cases, scholars are beginning to find some positive differences; others report negative outcomes.
In 1999, Thomas Russell published a compelling analysis of more than 350 studies on distance education across a broad range of disciplines called The No Significant Difference Phenomenon.38 As the title suggests, its principle conclusion was that the way education is delivered, whether face-to-face, via broadcasting, video or by teleconference, makes little difference to the quality of the student's learning experience. It included a few studies of computer-mediated distance education. By contrast, our review of research was limited exclusively to the use of computer technology in education but extended far beyond the distance education context. Even so, it seems at first blush to echo this "no significant difference phenomenon."
Several studies of journalism and communications classes found that performance measured by test scores, expert evaluations of performance or final grades were all unrelated to the mode of course delivery, whether in a traditional classroom setting, computer-aided, computer-mediated or online. One example compared a traditional and an online model for a public speaking course and found no significant difference in students' public speaking ability.39 This is an especially interesting result given the presumed difficulty of replicating such a "high touch" communications course online. Studies of other communication courses also found no significant difference.
A smaller yet notable number of studies are exceptions to this trend. For example, one study reported that in a mass communication theory course, test scores in a computer-mediated environment appeared to be higher.40 Grades in another course "were higher for those students who took part in computer-mediated discussions,41 and writing quality in a journalism course was higher when computer conferencing was used.42
A number of studies relying on qualitative analysis or measures of student perceptions found other benefits to integrating computers into journalism and communication pedagogies. The chief benefit emerging from the qualitative research is the increased availability of communication beyond scheduled classroom or face-to-face time. One study found that online and computer-mediated learning environments are superior for some kinds of student-student and student-teacher interaction compared to face-to-face classroom settings,43 especially when the class size is large.44 Another study found that computer-based distance learning programs helped students develop communities.45 Another found that the "sense of belonging" that students develop online is essential for keeping distance-education student connected.46 Better and easier communication with instructors and classmates, it is inferred, helps to overcome time and physical barriers to learning. Still, we found no study that promoted CMC to the exclusion of face-to-face. Several authors noted that there is no substitute for the human touch nor for the non-verbal communication cues that most CMC systems cannot transmit.
Several studies that measured student perceptions and attitudes supported this optimistic assessment. One example, a comparison of student interaction in face-to-face situations and in a CMC system, found that "while students produced significantly more ideas using computer-mediated communication in their study, they reported that face-to-face groups were significantly more effective, easier to use and more satisfying than CMC groups."47
Success in CMC-based instruction varies according to course content. For example, in a graphic design course, computer use was associated with perceptions of the acquisition of high-level design skills and domain knowledge.48 In a reporting, a copy editing and an international communication course, students found tailor-made Web-based resource sites to be useful for their projects, and useful toward improving their grammar skills.49 In a course on reporting for the Internet, the use of the Internet for teaching was related to student self-reports of learning, especially in developing critical thinking skills.50 Finally, in two studies of advertising media pedagogy, other benefits such as increased creative thinking and preparation for the profession were cited as chief benefits of using media buying/planning software.51
This section concludes with a brief overview of the final major category of student outcomes: perceived student enjoyment or satisfaction. As Aitken and Shedletsky said, "[C]ollege students seem to enjoy the nature and flexibility of online discussion."52 This statement aptly summarizes much of the research on student satisfaction with computer use in journalism and communication education.53 Students are reported to find satisfaction in both the learning process (collaboration, motivation and understanding) when computers are involved, and in the outcomes - expressed as efficiency from saving time, effectiveness in learning new skills and outright enjoyment.
In sum, learning outcomes is perhaps the area where the most research has been conducted and reported for communication education settings. Even so, the wide range of research questions and variables measured makes simple interpretation difficult. There may be no significant difference in learning when computers are part of the pedagogy; however, this seems to apply mostly to conventional measures of learning. Much of the research record gives evidence of unique and positive benefits for students when computer technologies are appropriately integrated into course design. Future research should seek to standardize those outcomes that measure learning objectives specific to journalism and communication education.
The purpose of this portion of the literature review is to examine attitudes and motivational factors that influence teachers to implement computer technology in their course curricula. In general, the research record suggests that teachers have a positive attitude toward computers and are generally motivated to use them. Helping students prepare for future employment and reducing time spent on repetitive tasks are two key factors. Administrative support, available time and resources to learn and implement new computing technology and the societal impacts of computers on students are areas of concern for teachers, and could affect their attitudes and motivations.
Studies confirmed that mass communication faculty perceive the integration of new media technology in the classroom as beneficial to both themselves and students, and conclud that new media technology has the potential to improve student attention while accommodating various learning styles.54 Those who perceived technology as effective for instruction were more motivated to use it in the classroom than those who did not.55 A prime example appears in the journalism and communication disciplines, where teachers use computers to help create a variety of relevant "real world" experiences for students, better preparing them for future careers.56
Studies reveal that professional and career issues are significant motivators for teachers.57 The need to remain current with developments in the profession as well as technology often motivate faculty to use computers and computing technology. Faculty members are also motivated to use computers to reduce time spent on "busy work," including repetitive tasks and communication with students and colleagues.58
Although faculty may at first be hesitant to implement computer technology, a significant number of studies concluded that attitudes toward the use of computers improved over time. Attitudes such as confidence and enjoyment all improved as a result of taking computer-training courses.59
While the overall findings indicate positive experiences and support, several studies find that faculty also maintain a skeptical outlook at computing technology. Lack of access to computers, lack of awareness of technological resources, fear of computers and lack of time to train and implement technology are factors leading to reduced motivation.60
Absence of administrative support was found to greatly reduce faculty motivation to use computers.61 Faculty who perceive minimal or negative administrative support for computer implementation reported that they were less likely to incorporate them into the classroom.62 Faculty are also concerned about the ability of computers to help them do their job. The technology must be convenient to use and must help faculty do a better job of what they define as important, including saving time, improving communication with students and conducting research.
Beyond the strictly temporal implementation and use of computers, some studies show that faculty also have legitimate concerns about the effects computer technology may have on students. Students may come to rely on computers to help them with their thinking skills and some faculty wonder what kind of societal impact computers will make in the future. While some educators believe that computers can help create a better sense of community, others fear computers will fail to live up to their promise of positive social change.63
In conclusion, the literature demonstrates that teachers who find value in computer use in their classrooms are generally the ones most motivated to integrate them into their instructional plan. However, availability of hardware and software, convenience of use, support from administration and potential societal effects are critical motivational factors.
Computers have transformed both the educational environment for communication students and the professions they seek to enter. Yet the question remains as to how profound the transformation has been in communication education.
In 1994, Kuehn noted a lack of research, particularly in communication education.64 This is still a concern today. This literature review has presented support both for and against the argument that computers can be effective educational tools. One explanation for these mixed findings is that the majority of the research reviewed here uses extremely disparate research designs to study the computer's effectiveness as an educational instrument.
The literature review suggests that there has been a shift from "traditional" pedagogical practices to more contemporary practices. Future studies should explicate clearly and explicitly what is meant by terms such as active and passive learning, and provide increasingly refined and valid tools for their measure.
1 R. Reis, A. G. Stravitsky, et al. "Journalism at a distance: The Oregon experiment." Journalism & Mass Communication Educator 54(4) (2000): 14-28; . J. E. Aitken and L. J. Shedlesky, "Using Electronic Discussion to Teach Communication Courses." Communication Education 51(3) (2002): 325-331.
2 W. S . Maki and R. H. Maki, "Learning about screening using an online or live lecture Does it matter?" Journal of General Internal Medicine 17(7) (2002); A. Spickard, N. Alrajeh, et al., "Assessing a computer-aided instructional strategy in a world geography course," Journal of Geography in Higher Education 25(3) (2001).
3 C. Cookman, "A Computer-based Graphics Course and Students' Cognitive Skills." Journalism & Mass_Communication Educator 53 (1998): 37-49.
4 S.A. Gunaratne and B. S. Lee, "Integration of Internet Resources into Curriculum and Instruction." Journalism and Mass Communication Educator 51 (1996): 25-35.
5 S.C. Hammond, D. Peterson, et al. "Print, broadcast, and online convergence in the newsroom," Journalism and Mass Communication Educator 55 (2000): 16-26.
6 L.D. Davenport, F. Fico, et al. "Computer-assisted reporting in classrooms: A decade of diffusion and a comparison to newsrooms," Journalism and Mass Communication Educators? (2002): 6-22; K. R. Blake, "Using World Wide Web to Teach News Writing Online," Journalism and Mass Communication Educator 55 (2000): 4-13.
7 K. K Gower and J.-Y. Cho, "Use of the Internet in the public relations curriculum," Journalism and Mass Communication Educator 56(2) (2001): 81-92.
8 Aitken. and Shedlesky, "Using Electronic Discussion."
9 T.C. Russo, "Making Connections: Enhancing Classroom Learning with a Virtual Visiting Professor," Communication Teacher 15(3) (2001): 7-8; A. Hoag and T. F. Baldwin, "Using Case Method and Exports in Inter-University Electronic Learning Teams," Educational Technology ff Society 3(3) (2000): 337-348.
10 Gunaratne and Lee, "Integration of Internet Resources."
11 Blake, "Using World Wide Web to Teach News Writing Online."
12 S. A. Gulhrie, "Making the World Wide Web accessible to all students," Journalism and Mass Communication Educator 55(1) (2000): 14-23.
13 J. Lee, "The effects of past computer experience on computerized aptitude test performance," Educational and Psychological Measurement 46(3) (1986): 727-733; C. R. Scott and S. C. Rockwell "The Effect of Communication, Writing, and Technology Apprehension on Likelihood to Use New Communication Technologies," Communication Education 46(1) (1997): 44-62; C. Taylor, I. Kirsch, et al., "Examining the relationship between computer familiarity and performance on computer-based language tasks," Language Learning 49(2) (1999): 219-274.
14 G. Fulcher, "Computerizing an English language placement test," ELT Journal 53(4) (1999): 289-299.
15 D. T. Holt and M. Crocker, "Prior negative experiences: their impact on computer training outcomes," Computers & Education 35(4) (2000): 295-308.
16 A.S. McDonald, "The impact of individual differences on the equivalence of computer-based and paper-and-pencil educational assessments," Computers & Education 39(3) (2002): 299-312.
17 T. Levine, and S. Donitsa-Schmidt "Computer use, confidence, attitudes, and knowledge: A causal analysis," Computers in Human Behavior 14(1) (1998): 125-146; L. Shashaani, "Gender differences in computer experience and its influence on computer attitude," Journal of Educational Computing Research 11(4) (1994): 347-367.
18 R.S. Lee, "Social attitudes and the computer revolution," Public Opinion Quarterly 33(1970): 53-59.
19 D.B. Brock and L. M. Sulsky, "Attitudes toward Computers: Construct Validation and Relations to Computer Use," Journal of Organizational Behavior 15(1) (1994): 17-35.
20 R.H. Kay, "An exploration of theoretical and practical foundations for assessing attitudes toward computers: The Computer Aided Measure (CAM)," Computers in Human Behavior 9(4) (1993): 371-386.
21 Scott and Rockwell, "The Effect of Communication Writing and Technology Apprehension on Likelihood to use New Communication Technologies, 44-62
22 Institute for Higher Education Policy, "What's the difference?"
23 B. Nelson, R. Dunn, et al., "Effects of learning style intervention on college students' retention and achievement," Journal of College Student Development 34(1993): 364-369; J.L. Ross, M. T. B. Drysdale, et al., "Cognitive learning styles and academic performance in two postsecondary computer application courses," Journal of Research on Computing in Education 33(4) (2001): 400-412.
24 X. C Wang, D. M. Hinn, et al. "Potential of computer-supported collaborative learning for learners with different learning styles," Journal of Research on Technology in Education 34(1) (2001): 75-85; D.W. Sanders and A. I. Morrison-Shetlar "Student attitudes toward Web-enhanced instruction in an introductory biology course," Journal of Research on Computing in Education 33(3) (2001): 251-262.
25 M. Chen, "Gender differences in adolescents' uses of and attitudes toward computers," Communication_Yearbook 10(1987): 200-216.
26 J. E. Walters and J. R. Necessary, "An attitudinal comparison toward computers between underclassmen and graduating seniors," Education 116(4) (1996): 623-630.
27 Sanders and Morrison-Shetlar, "Student attitudes toward Web-enhanced instruction," 251-262.
28 L. Shashaani and A. Khalilib "Gender and computers: similarities and differences in Iranian college students' attitudes toward computers," Computers_& Education 37(4) (2001): 363-375.
29 H. Chou, "Influences of cognitive style and training method on training effectiveness," Computers & Education 37(1) (2001): 11-25.
30 B.W. Brown and C. E. Liedholm "Can Web Courses Replace the Classroom in Principles of Microeconomics?" American Economic Review (2002): 1-12.
31 L. E. Houtz and U. G. Gupta, "Nebraska high school students' computer skills and attitudes," Journal of Research on Computing in Education 33(3) (2001): 316-327; J.C. Sweeney and D. Ingram, "A comparison of traditional and Web-based tutorials in marketing education: An exploratory study," Journal of Marketing Education 23(1) (2001).
32 R. Hertz-Lazarowitz and I. Bar-Natan, "Writing development of Arab and Jewish students using cooperative learning (CL) and computer-mediated communication (CMC)," Computers & Education 39(1) (2002): 19-36.
33 Houtz and Gupta, "Nebraska high school students' computer skills and attitudes."
34 D. E. Alperin, "The physically disabled BSW student: Implications for field education," Journal of Teaching in Social Work 2(2) (1988): 99-111; B.S. Coleand and M. W. Cain, "Social Work Students with disabilities: A proactive approach to accommodation," Journal of Social Work Education 32(1996): 339-349.
35 L. C. Mechling, D. L. Gast, et al., "Computer-based video instruction to teach persons with moderate intellectual disabilities to read grocery aisle signs and locate items," Applied Measurement in Education 7(1) (2002): 53-79; J. C. Bricout, "Making computer-mediated education responsive to the accommodation needs of students with disabilities," Journal of Social Work Education 37(2) (2001): 267.
36 T. S. Hasselbring and C. H. W. Glaser, "Use of computer technology to help students with special needs," The Future of Children 10(2) (2000): 102-122.
37 Several articles dating from before the broad diffusion of personal computers and electronic networks reported negative learning outcomes for students in various journalism and communications educational settings that now, it would seem, have been overcome by improvements in technology and computer literacy. See for examples P.C. Renfro, and J. P. Maittlen-Harris, "Study Suggests Computer Time Won't Help Writing," Journalism Educator 41(3) (1986): 49-51; W.R. Gates, "Software Exchange Available Online in AEJMC Forum," Journalism Educator 42(2) (1987): 47-48; R. Fischer and E. K. Grusin, "Grammar Checkers: Programs That May Not Enhance Learning," Journalism Educator 47(4) (1993): 20-27; W.E. Smith, "Computer-Mediated Communication: An Experimental Study," Journalism Educator 48(4) (1994): 27-33.
38 Russell, The No Significant Difference Phenomenon: A Comparative Research Annotated Bibliography on Technology for Distance Education. (Birmingham: IDECC, 1999).
39 R. A. Clark and D. Jones, "A Comparison of Traditional and Online Formats in a Public Speaking Course," Communication Education 50(2) (2001): 109-124.
40 J.B. Hester, "Using a Web-Based Interactive Test as a Learning Tool," Journalism & Mass Communication Educator 54(1) (1999): 35-41.
41 S. L. Althaus, "Computer-Mediated Communication in the University Classroom: An Experiment with On-line Discussions," Communication Education 46(2) (1997): 158-174.
42 W.E. Smith, "News Writing Students Prefer Computer Simulations," Journalism Educator 45(2) (1990): 38-44.
43 Althaus, "Computer-Mediated Communication in the University Classroom," M. McComb. "Benefits of Computer-Mediated Communications in College Courses," Communication Education 43(2) (1994): 159-170.
44 C. Smith, H. Kim, et al., "Computer-mediated communication and strategies for teaching: Instructional use of e-mail and bulletin boards," Journalism Educator 48(1) (1993): 80-83.
45 C. Haythornthwaite, M. M. Kazmer, et al., "Community Development Among Distance Learners: Temporal and Technological Dimensions," Journal of_Computer-Mediated Communication 6(1) (2000).
46 Aitken and Shedlesky, "Using Electronic Discussion to Teach Communication Courses."
47 B.A. Olaniran, G. T. Savage, et al., "Experimental and Experiential Approaches to Teaching Face-to-Face and Computer-Mediated Group Discussion," Communication Education 45(July 1996): 244-259.
48 Cookman, "A Computer-based Graphics Course and Students' Cognitive Skills."
49 Gunaratne and Lee, "Integration of Internet Resources into Curriculum and Instruction."
50 R. Huesca, "Reinventing Journalism Curricula for the Electronic Environment," Communication Education 55(2000): 4-15.
51 D. G. Martin and C. Lloyd, "Media Planning Courses and Dedicated Software." Journalism Educator 47(1) (1992): 38-47; K. W. King and M. Morrison, "A Media Buying Simulation Game Using the Internet," Journalism & Mass Communication Educator 53(3) (1998): 28-36.
52 Aitken and Shedlesky, "Using Electronic Discussion to Teach Communication Courses."
53 See for examples Smith, "Computer-Mediated Communication: An Experimental Study;" Althaus, "Computer-Mediated Communication in the University Classroom;" Hoag and Baldwin, "Using case Method and Experts in Inter-University Electronic Learning Teams."
54 M. A. Hignite and L. J. Echternacht, "Computer Attitudes and Literacy Assessment: Are Tomorrow's Business Teachers Prepared?" Journal of Education for Business 67(4) (1992): 249; D. Panici, "New Media and the Introductory Mass Communication Course," Journalism & Mass Communication Educator 53(1) (1998): 52-63; A. Mitra, T. Steffensmeier, et al., "Changes in Attitudes Toward Computers and Use of Computers by University Faculty," Journal of_Research on Computing in Education 32(1) (1999): 189-202; T.H. Spotts, "Discriminating factors in Faculty use of Instructional Technology in Higher Education," Educational Technology & Society 2(4) (1999): 92; N.B. Adams, "Educational Computing Concerns of Postsecondary Faculty," Journal of Research on Technology in Education 34(3) (2002): 284-303.
55 L. E. Gueldenzoph, S. Guidera, et al., "Faculty Use of Instructional Technology in the University Classroom," Journal of Educational Technology Systems 28(2) (1999): 121-135.
56 J.B. Singer, D. Craig, et al. "Attitudes of Professors and Students about New Media Technology," Journalism & Mass Communication Educator 51(2) (1996): 36-45; Panici, "New Media and the Introductory Mass Communication Course."
57 K.C. Lee and C. A. Fleming "Problems of Introducing Courses in Computer-Assisted Reporting," Journalism & Mass Communication Educator 50(3) (1995): 23-34.
58 Martin and Lloyd, "Media Planning Courses and Dedicated Software;" K. Nantz and M. Wilkins, "Faculty Use and Perceptions of Electronic Mail: A case Study," Journal of Education for Business 70 (1995): 196-201.
59 J. Takacs, W. M. Reed, et al., "The Effects of Online Multimedia Project Development, Learning Style, and Prior Computer Experiences on Teachers' Attitudes Toward the Internet and Hypermedia," Journal of Research on Computing in Education 31(4) (1009): 341; J. Wishart and D. Blease, "Theories underlying perceived changes in teaching and learning after installing a computer network in a secondary school," British Journal of Educational Technology 30(1) (1999): 25-41; S. Yildirim, "Effects of an educational computing course on preservice and inservice teachers: a discussion and analysis of attitudes and use," Journal of Research on Computing in Education 32(4) (2000): 479-495.
60 N. B. Adams, "Educational Computing Concerns of Postsecondary Faculty," Journal of Research on Technology in Education 34(3) (2002): 284-303.
61 Panici, "New Media and the Introductory Mass Communication Course;" Adams, "Educational Computing Concerns of Postsecondary Faculty."
62 L.E. Gueldenzoph, S. Guidera, et al., "Faculty Use of Instructional Technology in the University Classroom," Journal of Educational Technology Systems 28 (2)(1999):121-135.
63 J. B. Singer, D. Craig, et al, "Attitudes of Professors and Students about New Media Technology," Journalism and Mass Communication Educator 51(2) (1996): 36-45.
64 S. A. Kuehn, "Computer-Mediated Communication in Instructional Settings: A Research Agenda," Communication Education 43(2) (1994): 171-183.
This review of the literature was produced by the doctoral students of Assistant Professor Anne M. Hoag's (AMH13@PSU.EDU) communications pedagogy seminar at The Pennsylvania State University.
Appendix: Scholarly Journals Consulted
From the communication discipline:
* Canadian Journal of Communication
* Communication Education
* Communication Teacher
* Communication Yearbook
* Journal of Communication
* Journal of Computer Mediated Communication
* Journalism & Mass Communication Educator (and previously, Journalism Educator)
* Public Opinion Quarterly
Other journals included:
* The American Economic Review
* The American Journal of Distance Education
* American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
* Applied Measurement in Education
* British Journal of Educational Technology
* Computers & Education
* Computers and the Humanities
* Computers in Human Behavior
* Educational Psychology
* Educational and Psychological Measurement
* Educational Technology
* Educational Technology & Society
* ELT Journal
* Evaluation and Program Planning
* The Future of Children
* Information Technology, Learning, and Performance Journal
* International Journal of Instructional Media
* Internet and Higher Education
* Journal of College Student Development
* Journal of Education for Business
* Journal of Educational Computing Research
* Journal of Educational Technology Systems
* Journal of End User Research
* Journal of Experimental Psychology-Applied
* Journal of General Internal Medicine
* Journal of Geography In Higher Education
* Journal of Higher Education
* Journal of Instruction Delivery Systems
* Journal of Marketing Education
* Journal of Organizational Behavior
* Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance
* Journal of Research on Technology in Education (and previously, Journal of Research on Computing in Education)
* Journal of Social Work Education
* The Journal of Special Education
* Journal of Teaching in Social Work
* Language Learning
* Learning and Performance Journal
* Review of Educational Research
* School Science and Mathematics
* Technological Horizons in Education (T.H.E.) Journal
* Urban Education…
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Publication information: Article title: A Literature Review of Computers and Pedagogy for Journalism and Mass Communication Education. Contributors: Hoag, Anne M. - Author, Bhattacharya, Sandhya S. - Author, Helsel, Jeffrey - Author, Hu, Yifeng - Author, et al. - Author. Journal title: Journalism & Mass Communication Educator. Volume: 57. Issue: 4 Publication date: Winter 2003. Page number: 399. © Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication Winter 2008. Provided by ProQuest LLC. All Rights Reserved.