Frontiers: Essays & Writings on Racism & Culture // Review

By Nourbese Philip, Marlene | Resources for Feminist Research, Fall 1994 | Go to article overview
Save to active project

Frontiers: Essays & Writings on Racism & Culture // Review


Nourbese Philip, Marlene, Resources for Feminist Research


Perhaps I should begin too by acknowledging here that the position from which I write this review is also hazardous in that the politics of reviewing texts by "marginal" writers dictates a sisterly, celebratory reception. The response I offer deliberately tries to avoid a "politically correct," patronizing position in response to a Black women's text and instead attempts to engage more critically with the argument presented in the text.

The essays in this collection are disappointing because Philip's "positioning" is so fixed that there is an inevitability about the political line she takes. The gist of many of the essays is that the various arts funding organizations and institutions in Canada do not "respect" (Philip's term) black art and therefore black artists are not equally represented. Multiculturalism is described as being nothing more than a public gesture towards taking racism seriously. Fine; I agree. What I find much more problematic is the way this particular indictment is flattened out into a white/black dichotomy where white people are constructed as homogenously privileged supremacists and Black people occupy the moral high ground automatically by virtue of their historical oppression. Surely, this reduces the complexity of the workings of racism and invokes a notion of collective essences which is theoretically, and empirically, untenable. Philip uses emotive language throughout, the "scourge" of racism for example, and talks of "reparation" being due, all of which cater perfectly to the current market for texts which indulge white liberal guilt. Ultimately, casting all whites and all Blacks in the role "left over" from the days of empire as colonizers and colonized respectively, without acknowledging the complex interpenetration of roles in the contemporary political/economic context, leads to a dead end, freezing all the protagonists fatalistically into their "inherited" roles. This then leads to a moral morass of accusation and guilt which doesn't translate readily into productive dialogue or action.

The accusational or oppositional position which this dichotomy generates sets a rather limited agenda for the range of positions which Philip takes in these essays. In the introductory essay, questioning the desirability of Blacks forgetting colonialism and becoming "... unambivalently British or Canadian ..." (who is ever unambivalently of any national identity?), Philip writes:

Not to remember those things; to forget that what we now appear to share--education, religion, dress, legal institutions--are really tombstones erected on the graves of African custom, culture and languages, is simply to collude in our own erasure, our own obliteration.

It seems to me, certainly in the African Caribbean cultural context, that "social amnesia" has not and will not erase the memory of the horrors of slavery. What would be interesting to explore now would be the way "Africa" is represented in contemporary Black cultural forms: often in a generalized, romantic way and set invariably in a "traditional" timescape (which is how it tends to be invoked in these essays), but sometimes, and more interestingly as in Toni Morrison's or Erna Brodber's work, for example, in a creative reworking of this "rememory" (to use Morrison's evocative phrase).

But instead of exploring Black writing, Philip allows racist ideology to position her over and over again as oppositional and this oppositional stance then suggests that her target audience is a white liberal one, unfamiliar with the cultural terrain and receptive to some heavy-duty breast beating. Philip is in a catch-22 situation--an oppositional position is what is expected of her, as a "black woman writer," but it also sets limits on the parameters of her argument and leads to some confusion. For example, Philip states (p. 23), "We have been too long othered," but earlier she appears to be arguing for maintaining otherness or difference from (white) Canadian culture, and then later she states that white feminism is "a non-issue" for her.

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Frontiers: Essays & Writings on Racism & Culture // Review
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

While we understand printed pages are helpful to our users, this limitation is necessary to help protect our publishers' copyrighted material and prevent its unlawful distribution. We are sorry for any inconvenience.
Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.