Vitamin A Concentration in Umbilical Cord Blood of Infants from Three Separate Regions of the Province of Quebec (Canada)

By Dallaire, Frederic; Dewailly, Eric et al. | Canadian Journal of Public Health, September/October 2003 | Go to article overview

Vitamin A Concentration in Umbilical Cord Blood of Infants from Three Separate Regions of the Province of Quebec (Canada)


Dallaire, Frederic, Dewailly, Eric, Shademani, Ramesh, Laliberte, Claire, et al., Canadian Journal of Public Health


ABSTRACT

Background: Inuit women from Northern Quebec have been shown to consume inadequate quantities of vitamin A. This study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of blood vitamin A deficiency in newborns from 3 distinct populations of the province of Quebec.

Methods: 594 newborns were included in this study (375 Inuit newborns from northern Quebec (Nunavik), 107 Caucasian and Native newborns from the Lower Northern Shore of the Saint-Lawrence River (LNS) and 112 newborns from Southern Quebec where clinical vitamin A deficiency is uncommon). Mothers were recruited at delivery and vitamin A (retinol) was analyzed from umbilical cord blood samples by reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography.

Results: Nunavik and LNS newborns had significantly lower mean vitamin A concentrations in cord blood compared to Southern Quebec participants (15.7 [mu]g/dL, 16.8 [mu]g/dL and 20.4 [mu]g/dL respectively). The differences observed were similar when adjusted for sex and birthweight. Results also showed that 8.5% of Nunavik newborns and 1 2.2% of LNS newborns were below 1 0.0 [mu]g/dL, a level thought to be indicative of blood vitamin A deficiency in neonates.

Conclusion: These data suggest that a carefully planned vitamin A supplementation program during pregnancy in Nunavik and LNS might be indicated to promote healthy infant development.

Vitamin A influences the expression many genes and is essential for normal growth. Its involvement in infant development, vision and cell differentiation is well known. Adequate maternal stores of vitamin A are essential during pregnancy to meet the needs of the fetus. Vitamin A deficiency during development and early childhood delays growth, impairs vision and increases the severity of infections, ultimately leading to many otherwise preventable deaths.1-4

Vitamin A deficiency among children is an important public health problem primarily in developing countries.4,5 In Canada, Inuit infants are also at risk of vitamin A deficiency because Inuit women of childbearing age have been shown to consume inadequate quantities of vitamin A.6-8 Canadian Inuit preschool children have been shown to have a high incidence of infections.9,10 It is therefore important to determine if vitamin A deficiency, an important risk factor for infectious diseases, is prevalent in this population. This study attempts to document the prevalence of blood vitamin A deficiency in Inuit neonates. Comparison of vitamin A concentrations between studies has proven difficult because of variations in analytical methods. In this study, we compare the vitamin A concentrations in umbilical cord serum samples of Inuit neonates from the northern part of the province of Quebec (Nunavik) with cord blood levels of two different populations from Quebec, with all samples being analyzed in the same laboratory.

Methods

Populations and recruitment

The participants in this study were recruited between 1993 and 1997 and came from three different populations in the province of Quebec (Canada): 1) mothers and newborns from 14 small Inuit communities of Nunavik - a vast and remote area in northernmost Quebec (Figure 1), 2) 15 villages in the Lower North Shore (LNS) region of the St-Lawrence River - remote and isolated from the rest of the province, and 3) women admitted for delivery in one of the 10 participating hospitals from 10 administrative regions of Quebec, thought to be representative of the southern portion of the province where clinical vitamin A deficiency is uncommon.

The women were recruited originally for the evaluation of prenatal exposure to food-chain contaminants (heavy metals and organochlorines),11-13 and a subset of each population were randomly selected and agreed to participate in the present study (Population 1: 419/491 (85.3%), Population 2: 108/467 (23.1%), Populations: 112/1109 (10.1%)).

Data collection and sample analysis

After signing the appropriate consent forms, all mothers answered a short questionnaire relating to their sociodemographic characteristics. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Vitamin A Concentration in Umbilical Cord Blood of Infants from Three Separate Regions of the Province of Quebec (Canada)
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.