Closed Courtroom Prompts New Trial

News Media and the Law, Fall 1999 | Go to article overview
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Closed Courtroom Prompts New Trial


Using a First Amendment freedom of the press framework to analyze a criminal defendant's claims about his Sixth Amendment right to a public trial, Maryland's highest court held in early October that a trial court did not make the factual findings necessary to justify closing a courtroom during trial of a case involving allegations of sexual crimes against a minor.

The court reversed lower courts in holding that a trial court can only overcome the Sixth Amendment objection to closing a courtroom if the court makes specific findings in support of closure on the record and narrowly tailors an order to protect an overriding state interest.

Maryland prosecutors charged Robert Carter with rape, second and third degree sexual offenses, attempted sodomy, and child abuse of his stepdaughter, who was 3 years old when the alleged abuse began and 14 years old at the time of trial in Bel Air. The trial judge heard the case without a jury.

After opening statements, the prosecution requested that the trial court clear the courtroom of spectators during the testimony of the alleged victim. Carter objected, arguing that he had a right to a public trial. The court granted the request to clear the courtroom of all members of the public, finding that "the child's privacy and tender age in this instance certainly outweighs any significance attaching to the public trial."

The child then testified, and at the conclusion of her questioning from the prosecution, she commented that she was pleased the court had excluded the public from hearing her testimony.

The trial court found Carter guilty of sexual offenses and child abuse. It sentenced him to 105 years of imprisonment, with all but 20 years suspended, and five years of probation upon release. Carter appealed to Maryland's intermediate appellate court, the Court of Special Appeals in Annapolis. He argued that the trial court's exclusion of all spectators from the courtroom violated his right to a public trial.

The intermediate appellate court affirmed, holding that the trial court had found a specific compelling need that justified clearing the courtroom. Alternatively, the intermediate appellate court held that the victim's commentary on the closed courtroom bore out the appropriateness of the court's decision.

Carter then appealed to the Maryland Court of Appeals - the highest appellate court in the state - in Annapolis. He argued that the trial court violated his constitutional right to a public trial by clearing the courtroom during the victim's testimony. He claimed that both the Maryland high court and the U.S. Supreme Court previously had recognized the significance and value of public trials.

The prosecution argued that the trial court struck the correct balance in favor of closing the courtroom when it weighed Carter's right to a public trial against Maryland's interest in protecting a minor victim from testifying publicly. The prosecution also argued that the trial court's ruling did not violate the Sixth Amendment because it closed the courtroom for a limited duration after making adequate findings that such a step was necessary to protect a child sex offense victim.

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Closed Courtroom Prompts New Trial
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