Career Guidance Books Assess the Value of Journalism Education
Steiner, Linda, The Journalism Educator
"Newspapermen are born, not made," Julian Ralph wrote in a posthumously-published 1903 book describing his own reporting career and the rewards of journalism careers generally (Ralph 1903, p. 175). The highly respected New York Sun writer defended news writing courses then offered at Cornell. Ralph encouraged would-be reporters to read and write on their own, for "constant practice is a fine teacher" (p. 7). But he spoke for many journalists in declaring that no schools, including journalism schools, could teach the skills and aptitudes journalists need. While the terms have shifted, the value of journalism education is still debated.
This study looks at the advice about journalism preparation and education in 70 career guidance books--every American college-level book about journalism careers published over the last century--as well as in 30 general inventories of careers (sometimes known as "vocational civics").(1) In order to understand why students studied journalism and what they expected from such study, this article examines the advice given in career books. It examines career advisers' reasons for recommending or criticizing journalism education.
Not all students read these books or follow their advice when selecting careers, colleges, majors, or courses. Nonetheless, students interested in journalism are more likely to consult these books than articles published in the press. Often part of a career series, these books provide more accessible, complete, and dependable information about career preparation than do, for example, conversations with working professionals. Certainly, counselors and parents encourage students to use this literature.
This paper frames the books in the context of their conception of journalism's "mission." Proposals for professional journalism training, although controversial, were among the "possible solutions" for journalistic practices criticized in the late nineteenth century (Dicken-Garcia 1989, pp. 218-219). Indeed, one of the earliest calls for college-level journalism education stemmed from a conviction that it would elevate journalists' ethical standards. The reasoning of George Lunt, a former U.S. attorney, was that since journalists provided a form of public education, they should be educated for public service. Educated people, Lunt said during a 1856 lyceum lecture, are "less liable to petty temptations--less easily controlled and led away..."(quoted in Dicken-Garcia, p. 218). Regardless of what journalism education did or can do, career guidance experts assume that journalism education trains reporters to behave like working reporters, not to be better than them or to change the institution of journalism itself.
Early vocational education
Through the end of the federalist period, inventories of jobs and "success" books constituted most of the little vocational guidance that Americans received. Edward Hazen (1837), for example, described dozens of professions and trades, but essentially ignored the question of preparation and training. Formal career guidance literature appeared in the United States in conjunction with increasing pressures on universities to move away from narrowly defined classical education and to offer courses in "practical subjects." Vocational education itself was an outgrowth of this movement.
America's emergence as a major industrial nation called attention to the need for better training and deployment of workers, especially those who moved to cities from rural areas or from other countries. Turn-of-the-century social reformers designed vocational bureaus, training projects, and services to connect work with self-esteem (Mays 1948; Brewer 1942) and to collect and disseminate career information. Frank Parsons (1909), considered the father of the vocational guidance movement, outlined a "scientific" approach to occupational choice that emphasized using vocational literature of the type studied here to see whether one's personal traits matched the factors demanded by particular occupations. Orison Swett Marden, who published dozens of "inspirational" books, usually with the word "success" or "winning" in their titles, offered a more modern approach to career guidance in his 1905 Choosing a Career. In the chapter on newspaper work, Marden suggested that successful journalists needed "a good education, particularly in the English branches" (1905, p. 277).
Vocational education theories shifted in the 1950s and 1960s from an emphasis on information about specific careers to a concern with decision-making processes (Crites 1969; Ginzberg 1966). Comprehensive "vocational civics" therefore went out of vogue; but books describing specific careers, including journalism, continue to be published. The introductions to many of these vocational books, as well as the disciplinary literature for vocational guidance, suggest the extent to which Americans believe work decisions have impact on both individuals and society.
The defense of journalism as a career and as an academic major represents a more tangled history. Again, some press critics assumed journalism schools should accept responsibility for issuing intelligent critiques of press problems and for articulating standards for the press (Marzolf 1991). Cornell's president Andrew White, who helped lead the movement of universities to offer practical courses, emphasized the need for "journalists whose knowledge is extended and thorough, whose opinions are based upon well-ascertained principles, whose powers both of thought and statement have been carefully cultivated" (1884, p. 31).(2)
Proposals for journalism education also connect to reporters' increasing interest in the status they assumed other professions enjoyed in the late nineteenth century.(3) Academic and professional legitimacy were sometimes explicitly linked. Joseph Pulitzer hoped his $2 million donation to Columbia for a journalism school would "begin a movement that will raise journalism to the rank of a learned profession, growing in the respect of the community as other professions far less important to the public interest have grown" (1904, p. 657). Even before Columbia's School of Journalism opened, the editor of a popular London newspaper predicted that it would enjoy great success (quoted in Lawrence 1903); he urged American and British journalists to attend each others' universities, at least for one year.(4) Career guidance literature picked up this theme: "Journalism is becoming a profession and those who go into it would do well to have a college education" (Giles and Giles 1919, p. 180).
Although journalists complained that they were not drunken Bohemians, they did not all agree that professional education would elevate either their status, or train writers to perform at a standard level.(5) Insisting that journalism skills, if not inborn, could develop only in a newsroom, some working reporters and editors of the 1880s and 1890s openly disdained the journalism courses and lectures offered at universities.(6) These expressions of criticism and skepticism about journalism courses appeared in the career guidance literature, especially that of reporters and editors. For example, John Given claimed in 1907 that no well-equipped school was yet successfully teaching journalism, although he conceded that editors made poor teachers.(7)
A couple of early career books turned the question around to suggest that news reporting itself was educational. According to the president of Temple College in Philadelphia, no college or university could furnish "such an excellent variety of instruction" as journalism (Conwell 1904, p. 64). Nathaniel Fowler's 1906 Starting in Life. What Each Calling Offers Ambitious Boys and Young Men also emphasized the training reporters receive in life--the "hardest school of knowledge" (p. 292). Fowler, author of other non-fiction books, criticized college education as "altogether too highly specialized." His Handbook of Journalism asserted, "Journalism cannot be taught by book or lesson" (1913, p. 1), although he conceded that a degree conferred a competitive edge.
Regardless of the criticisms, several universities established formal journalism programs between 1902 and 1912, including Illinois, Wisconsin, Missouri, and Columbia. The long-time business manager for the New York World (Seitz 1916) extolled "Pulitzer's school" in his book for the Lippincott training series. Talcott Williams (1922), the first director of Columbia's journalism school, defended his program for the financial advantage it provided. Williams predicted that eventually all urban universities would offer journalism education and that states would eventually require professional training and certification of reporters (p. 123).(8)
Both academics and journalists who wrote career guidance material asserted from the start that mastery of shorthand was crucial. And they eventually agreed that journalists should be broadly knowledgeable and therefore "liberally" educated. According to a long-time Evening Sun managing editor, any high school graduate could report ordinary events, but "higher-level" journalism necessitated college-level liberal arts breeding (Lord 1922). A 1912 inventory listed the relevant liberal arts: history, economics, science, geography, law, modern foreign languages, "a living, warm acquaintance with the best of literature and art...[and] a serious study of politics in their deeper meaning" (Munsterberg 1912, p. 235).(9) In the interests of even greater breadth, Given's list added other subjects: logic, political economy, geography, government, psychology, and sociology (1907).
By the 1920s and 1930s, career guidance counselors reported that newspapers were increasingly able to hire qualified people with college degrees. "[N]ow the value of a college education is an established fact" (Rosengarten 1924, p. 195). Though not required for entry into the profession, they said, the college degree was necessary for promotions, especially to or within the larger, more prestigious papers. In a discussion of Columbia's journalism program, two California professors explained, "College training weeds out the unfit and gives a man a good background that will help him to advance" (Bennett and Older 1931, p. 480).
Rosengarten explained that besides broad education, prospective newspaper men should take journalism courses, "for the men who know what to do when they enter upon their duties are likely to obtain more rapid promotion than those who are obliged to depend upon slowly acquired experience ...(1924, p. 195).(10) Using an analogy to make his point, Talcott Williams was often quoted saying that professional education does not turn a man into a journalist--any more than it makes a lawyer or doctor.(11)
In the 1930s the philosophy of journalism programs shifted away somewhat from the vocational approaches (again, combined with courses taken in other disciplines) to a social-science focus. This interest in social-science methods influenced the vocational literature. In 1931, Walter Pitkin and Robert Harrel surveyed reporters, as well as students at ten major journalism schools,(12) to determine the "factors making for success in journalism." They found that 12 percent of the reporters had majored in journalism; another 41 percent had college degrees.
Quoting Dorothy Thompson ("Do not study journalism"), Marjorie Shuler (1941, p. 31) described journalism graduates as often seeming rigid and conceited. One New York newspaperman suggested as late as 1946 that a college education might be a minor handicap, given the natural antagonism of "those on lower rungs" against educated people. Elias Sugarman complained about reporters who graduate college without practical experience, but "inflated with grandiose ideas" that prevented a smooth adjustment to the workplace (1946, p. 14). Nonetheless, since World War II both professional career advisers and journalism experts have generally agreed that reporters benefit from journalism education--at least that provided by "legitimate" journalism schools. Instead of criticizing journalism schools for what they were teaching, they criticized them for what they were not teaching.
In the 1960s, a few career-counseling books suggested that journalism education was a form of liberal education, as long as one avoided the "supermarket" approaches of journalism "trade schools." Stein I1965, 1978) railed against what he called "the dreary bromide" that journalism education excludes liberal arts.(13)
The special case of women
By the 1890s, career advice directed to women acknowledged their interest and accomplishments in journalism. Martha Louise Rayne's What Can a Woman Do: or, Her Position in the Business and Literary World (1893) asserted that women should develop practical skills, since they never know when they might need to work. That Rayne's chapter on journalism called for professional journalism training is not surprising. A much-published poet and novelist as well as journalist, Rayne ran a journalism school for women from 1886-1900. She said she established her Detroit school when she tired of waiting for publisher Charles Dana to do so.(14) Frances Willard's 1897 Occupations for Women emphasized the need for persistence, pluck, and diligence in getting and keeping jobs. Willard, known as a suffrage and temperance advocate, enthusiastically detailed women's opportunities in advertising, printing, and reporting, including writing for suffrage and reform publications.(15)
Talcott Williams acknowledged the difficulties women graduates experienced in finding newspaper jobs and he condemned prejudice on the basis of sex and race (1922, p. 125). But most of the early male career experts ignored women altogether. Alternatively, after relegating women to women's departments and/or part-time work, they implied that women's work did not require higher education.(16) The few men specifically dealing with women's vocational opportunities sidestepped the question of whether women should major in journalism. One vocational civics, however, included journalism among both "occupations for women" and "occupations for men" and advocated college-level journalism education in both categories (Smith and Blough 1929).(17)
A Kansas State journalism professor, Charles Rogers, described women's continuing enrollment in journalism schools despite the hostility to them as a "feminine enigma." (1931, p. 259). He steered women to advertising, publicity, and journalism teaching. Interestingly, after describing women's limited opportunities, he said college teachers should have studied journalism and "should have practical experience in journalism as varied as possible" (p. 271).
Responding to the lack of data about women in the field, in 1934 and 1935 Iona Logie surveyed 881 women writers. Her Careers for Women in Journalism (1938) reported that many women had useful college internships, and 20 percent of the women surveyed used college connections to find their first jobs. Logie advised women to obtain a liberal education and intensive knowledge of some special topic.
In the late 1920s and 1930s, several female reporters published career books targeted to women. Genevieve Jackson Boughner (1926), a journalist who taught at the University of Minnesota, and Ethel Brazelton (1927), who left the Chicago Tribune to teach "women's journalism" at Northwestern, both extolled the women's beat. They emphasized the need for college preparation and training, as well as extensive professional skills.(18)
The New York Herald Tribune's Emma Bugbee acknowledged the allure of journalism in her chapter for Doris Fleischman's 1929 book on careers for women. Warning that a newspaper might only hire one woman out of 1,000 applicants, she offered the consolation that "women's stuff' could be interesting. The journalism degree was "more highly valued" than ten years ago, Bugbee said, and command of stenography, French, and Gennan, while likewise not necessary, were "very useful in emergencies" (p. 261). She added, "Intelligence and energy, coupled with general education and a flair for writing, are the characteristics the city editor regards as essential, and moderate good looks never hurt a candidate"( p. 262).
The typical post-World War II approach is seen in a chapter for a 1949 book by Lucy Rogers Hawkins, who taught journalism at Medill and worked for a scientific trade journal. Assuming that women would write about women's activities, Hawkins encouraged girls to study their mothers and their friends, and then earn a degree in home economics, supplemented by courses in art, reporting, and feature writing. "If she intends to marry--and who doesn't?--she will use her training in two ways, for herself as a homemaker and club woman and in writing for other women" (in Campbell 1949, p. 71). More optimistic about women's chances in journalism, New York University Professor M. L, Stein asserted in a chapter titled "The Door's Open, Girls" that majoring in journalism was even more important for girls than boys, since "professional training will help convince an editor that she is serious about newspaper work" (1965, p. 109).(19)
The male view of women in the newsroom changed little from the 1890s to the 1960s. In 1963, Leonard and Bernard Ryan suggested that women could break into journalism--a man's world--only at the expense of their femininity. In any case, they explained, several journalism schools limited women's enrollment because of the difficulty placing women graduates. Reversing this logic, the American Newspapers Publishers Association reasoned that since male enrollments in journalism schools were double those of women, "it's not surprising that the ladies are similarly outnumbered [in newsrooms]" (ANPA 1968, p. 11).
Both journalism schools and career guidance experts generally have congratulated journalism schools for recruiting former journalists as teachers and administrators. However, critics occasionally dismiss this ready pool of talent. Several of the 18 editors contributing to a 1959 volume (Gemmill and Kilgore) disdained journalism schools as retirement homes for old newsmen; one suspected that instead of retiring to Florida, some newsmen were retiring to journalism schools, where they would forget their practical experience. James Kilpatrick, then editor of the Richmond (Va.) News Leader, dismissed journalism schools as useful only for training advertising workers, typographers, and teachers. "For the talented young man, I can't imagine anything more wasteful of his time" (p. 48).
Some of the recent career advice from professional reporters echoes their predecessors' scorn. Thomas Pawlick, a reporter for several papers and wire services, regards newspaper work as inherently superior to formal schooling: "[Working on a daily paper] is an education itself, a cram course in hard knocks and the vagaries of human nature" (1981, p. 21).(20) On the other hand, most of the books take for granted that would-be reporters will study journalism. Books now available to students explain how to select a journalism school or journalism courses, describe different occupational sequences, and list AETMC-accredited schools (e.g. The Institute for Research, 1973; Rosenfeld, 1977; Noble, 1987; Noronha 1987). Several authors also endorse a master's degree in journalism for those serious about reporting (Career Associates 1985; Mogel 1988; Patten and Fergusen 1990). A professional reporter and Columbia graduate and faculty member countered with a list of several reasons for attending journalism school: one enters at a higher level. so one's career progresses faster; one can survey a range of opportunities in communication professions; one gets training from and contact with working professionals, as well as assistance in finding jobs (Tebbel 1982).
Journalism graduates are now said to have a clear advantage over liberal arts graduates. One book cites evidence that 98 percent of newspapers recruiting on campuses interview only journalism majors (Plain Talk 1970, pp. 5-6). Emerging technologies add to the pressure on rookie reporters to enter the workforce with training and experience (Teel and Taylor 1983). A Harvard-issued guide claims the mass media are so competitive that they make getting into Harvard look easy (Noble 1987).
Trained career advisors can be expected to evaluate disciplines in terms of whether they lead to jobs and promotions within standard industries. Two prominent vocational theorists, for example, define vocational counseling as having two fundamental purposes: "to help people make good vocational adjustments, and to facilitate smooth functioning of the economy through effective use of manpower" (Super and Crites 1962, p. 1). But the industrial approach of the books studied here is misleading, and plays into the hands of those who see college education as primarily valuable for job preparation. (21) The books advise students to become "fitted" to mass media's needs rather than try to reform institutions and processes.
The books ignore the extent to which journalism schools are returning to an original mission: to critique journalism practices, journalism ethics, professional socialization, and even journalism education itself. These critiques previously took the forms of published research and criticism, i.e., without including students. But emerging acknowledgement that students may be more active as media consumers than professional producers underscores the importance of incorporating serious press criticism into the curriculum, including at the undergraduate level. Books describing the journalism major do not yet, however, foreshadow this activity.
The extent to which vocational books now advocate journalism education and their regular attention to women's status and potential in journalism may be gratifying to educators. Nonetheless, career guidance experts continue to be caught between the opposing views of professional journalists and of journalism educators. Whereas reporters a century ago typically claimed that little that was useful to journalists could be taught, or learned, they now generally complain that the ivory tower spends too much time on theoretical issues and not enough on the honing of practical skills. Either way, the continuing sense of conflict echoes decades past: "Never, never quote your professor to the editor...[T]he editor is the man for whom you are working" (Shuler 1941, 17).
Career guidance books still define journalism education exclusively in terms of job preparation. Career experts now promoting journalism education exclusively reference its professional courses, contacts, and job possibilities. Readers of the books of the 1980s and 1990s learn that the value of journalism school is only its ability to deliver skills necessary in a "tight" market." But educators are often unconcerned with defending their ability to teach narrowly-defined skills and more interested in "media literacy." Trinity University's Robert Blanchard and William Christ, for example, challenge "the seldom-questioned assumption that communication and media education undergraduate programs exist primarily to serve the narrowly defined, short-term needs of media industries by producing unquestioning, industry-socialized, job-specific, entry-level, plentiful, cheap labor" (1993, p. 10).
One source of this "occupationalist" assumption may be the conservatism of career guidance literature. Advocates of still-evolving liberal arts approaches to mass communications studies and of a "new professionalism" (Blanchard and Christ) would do well to consider how career guidance literature might be revamped to encourage and reflect these developments in the structure, mission, and curriculum of journalism schools.
1. I examined all books listed in the vocational category in Warren Price's (1959) annotated bibliography and in The American Book Publishing Record (1876-1981) end Cumulative Book Index (1982-1991), as well as other journalism titles not listed in that category, but whose authors indicated a commitment to vocational guidance. The New York Public Library holds most of these titles and various universities had the rest. A complete list of all the books studied, most of which are not cited individually here, given the degree of repetition, is available from the author. Approximately 10 percent of the books specifically about journalism (mostly early books) said nothing about journalism education. I included only those inventories or general vocational books dealing with journalism.
2. Since his proposals for journalism lectures never got very far, White recommended that Cornell
students interested in journalism should major in history and political science, especially since that program also required moral and political philosophy, Latin, and English (1884, 33-34).
3. Schudson says the growing "marketability" of the journalism degree after the Civil War indicated reporters' new status (1978, p. 68). McKerns (1989) emphasizes how Progressive-era professionals simultaneously enhanced their economic position and their social status by restricting entrance into the professions and by creating professional associations. Also connecting journalism education to Progressive philosophy, Marzolf views professionalism as a way for journalists "to regain some of the lost prestige suffered during the era of yellow journalism" (1991, p. 50).
4. Some very early books about journalism careers were published in England, such as Press Careers (McEwan, 1888), by the principal of the London College of Shorthand, which offered reporting classes.
5. Vocational literature repeated this complaint (e.g. Blythe 1912).
6. They published their scoffings not only in popular periodicals and trade papers, but also in autobiographical books. Like Ralph, for example. Charles Dana challenged the utility of college instruction in journalism (1895, pp. 16-17). For a history of journalism education, see Sutton (1945), Wilcox (1959), and Lindley (1975).
7. Given, a New York Evening Sun reporter, did not define well-equipped. But at least he appreciated colleges for their ability to weed out "hopeless cases."
8. Over the years, several press critics and scholars, as well as a few journalists have proposed some accreditation process, often in the context of alleged analogies to medicine and law. The Pennsylvania State Editorial Association advocated a licensing plan in 1912. As Lt. Governor of Illinois, Barratt O'Hara, a former journalist, drafted a bill which would have established licensing in much the same way as for lawyers and doctors. That bill required either two years of college-level journalism study or a two-year newspaper apprenticeship (O'Hara 1915, p. 155). Editor and Publisher, which once favored a licensing plan, later objected, arguing in part that journalism schools were already setting standards for students ("Should Reporters Be Licensed?" 1915).
9. Of the authors calling for foreign language training, none, including Munsterberg, Harvard trained vocational guidance leader, explained the rationale. Presumably this was assumed in "liberal education." A survey of 109 journalism programs in the late 1950s (Higginbotham, 1959) indicated that journalism programs located within liberal arts colleges "always" required foreign language study when the degree was a B.A. and "usually" when the degree was a B.5. Other journalism programs--free-standing schools or otherwise outside the liberal arts college--also required foreign languages.
10. This argument could also be reversed, i.e., newspapers were recruiting among college graduates because journalism was included in the college curriculum (Rodger 1928).
11. Gowin, Wheatley, and Brewer (1923) and Brewer and Landy (1936, 1943) use this quote. John Brewer, director of Harvard's Bureau of Vocational Guidance, was both an early historian and intellectual leader of the vocational guidance movement.
12. By 1931 mare than 50 schools had journalism departments or schools. Nonetheless, in his 1934 book, Pitkin, who taught journalism at Columbia, warned readers away from journalism with a chapter titled "Forewarned is Forearmed: The 'Overcrowded' Fields."
13. See also Ryan and Ryan 1963; Barry 1967. Consistent with the times, Stein suggested that the value of college, including journalism school, depended on students' initiative.
14. Again, Dena insisted that the only place to learn journalism was in a newspaper office. In any case, Rayne's school shows the influence of the academy movement, which. following Benjamin Franklin's philosophy, heavily emphasized vocational preparation. After the American revolution, the private academy became a major means of financial and social advancement (Law 1986).
15. Willard wrote for various publications; and two Boston reporters, Helen Winslow and Sallie Joy White, helped Willard write the book-which did not address the question of journalism education.
16. This is consistent with how reporting textbooks described women's opportunities (Steiner 1992).
17. "Professional training in journalism is already desired and expected by some owners of newspapers." Smith and Blough told women, mentioning Columbia, Northwestern, and Wisconsin (1929.p. 341).
18. Rogers (1931) quotes Boughner speaking to the 1927 convention of the American Association of Teachers of Journalism, charging that female journalism school graduates were proof reading, writing hotel publicity, or researching encyclopedia entries rather than reporting major stories (p. 266).
19. Here, as elsewhere, I have not changed the authors' language, including the references to "girls." It is worth noting that women have also used this vocabulary. For example, in encouraging women to study broadly in the humanities, Stein quoted columnist Mary McGrory, who urged "girls" to "read all the best authors starting with the Greeks" (p. 110).
20. Pawlick also argues that reporting does not require any training (p. 58), and that nothing can teach "a nose for news." See also Weinstein (1984).
21. A 1977 Carnegie Foundation report says this attitude can lead to over specialization, inflexibility, and even dissatisfaction. But a Carnegie survey found that 95 percent of American undergraduates say job training and skills are either "essential" or "fairly important" goals of college education (1977, p. 223).
American Newspapers Publishers Association (1968). Your Future in Doily Newspapers. New York: ANPA Foundation.
Barry, John (1967). Opportunities in Journalism Careers. New York: Vocational Guidance Manuals.
Bennett, G. Vernon and Frank Older, eds. (1931). Occupational Orientation. Los Angeles: Society for Occupational Research.
Blanchard, Robert and William Christ (1993). Media Education and the Liberal Arts. Hillsdale. N. J.: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Blythe, Samuel (1912). The Making of a Newspaper Man. Philadelphia: Henry Altemus. Boughner, Genevieve Jackson [(926). Women in Journalism. A Guide to the Opportunities and a Manuel of the Technique of Women's Work for Newspapers ond Magazines. New York: Appleton.
Brazelton, Ethel M. C. (1927). Writing and Editing for Women. A Bird's Eye View of the Widening Opportunities for Women in Newspaper, Magazine and Other Writing Work. New York: Funk & Wagnalls.
Brewer, John M. (1942). History of Vocational Guidance. Origins and Early Developments. New York: Harper.
Brewer, John M. and Edward Landy (1936, 1943). Occupations Today. Boston: Ginn.
Campbell, Lawrence, ed. (1949). Careers in journalism. Chicago: Northwestern University, (Quill & Scroll Foundation.
Career Associates (1985). Career Choices for Students of Communications and Journalism. New York: Walker.
Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching [(977). Missions of the College Curricula. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Conwell, Russell (1904). The New Day, or Fresh Opportunities. A Book for Young Men. Philadelphia: The Griffith & Rowland Press.
Crites, J. O. (1969). Career Counseling. New York: McGraw Hill.
Dana, Charles (1895). The Art of Newspaper Making. New York: D. Appleton.
Dicken-Garcia, Hazel (1989). Journalistic Standards in Nineteenth-Century America. Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press.
Fleischman, Doris, ed. (1829). An Outline of Careers for Women. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, Doran.
Fowler, Nathaniel C. (1906) Starting in Life. Boston: Little, Brown.
Fowler, Nathaniel C. (1913) The Handbook of Journalism. New York: Sully and Kleinteich.
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Given, John L. (1907). Making a Newspaper. New York: Henry Holt.
Gowin, Enoch Burton, William Alonzo Wheatley. and John Brewer (1923). Occupation. Boston: Ginn.
Hazen, Edward (1837). The Panorama of Professions and Trades, or Every Man's Book. Philadelphia: Uriah Hunt.
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Lindley, William R. (1975). Journalism in Higher Education: The Search for Academic Purpose. Stillwater, OK: Journalistic Services.
Logie, Iona (1938). Careers for Women in Journalism. Scranton: International Textbook Company.
Lord, Chester S. (1922). The Young Man and Journalism. New York: MacMillan.
McEwan, Oliver (1888). A Press Career. London: Charles J. A. Cox.
McKerns, Joseph P. (1989). "The Emergence of Modern Media, 1900-1945." In Wm. David Sloan, James G. Stovall, and James D. Startt, eds. The Media in America. A History. Worthington, OH: Publishing Horizons.
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Marzolf, Marion Tuttle (1991). Civilizing Voices: American Press Criticism, 1880-1950. New York: Longman.
Mays, Arthur B. (1948). Principles and Practices of Vocational Education. New York: McGraw Hill.
Mogel, Leonard (1988). Making It in the Media Professions. Chester, Conn.: Globe Pequot.
Munsterberg, Hugo (1912). Vocation and Learning. St. Louis: The Peoples University
Noble, John H. (1987). Harvard Guide to Careers in Mass Media. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Noronha, Shonan F.R. (1987). Careers in Communications. Lincolnwood, Ill.: VGM Career Horizons.
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Pawlick, Thomas (1981). Exploring Careers in Journalism. New York: Richards Rosen.
Pitkin, Walter B. (1934). New Careers for Youth. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Pitkin, Walter B. and Robert F. Harrel(1931). Vocational Studies in Journalism. New York: Columbia University.
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Pulitzer, Joseph (May 1904). "College of Journalism." North American Review 178, pp. 641-680.
Ralph, Julian (1903). The Making of a Journalist. New York: Harper & Brothers.
Rayne, Martha Louis (1893). What Can a Woman Do; or Her Position in the Business and Literary World. Peterburgh, N.Y.: Eagle Pub., reprinted by Arno Press, 1974.
Rodger, Esca (1928). Careers. New York: D. Appleton.
Rogers, Charles Elkins (1931). Journalistic Vocations. New York: D. Appleton.
Rosenfeld, Megan (1977). Careers in Journalism for the New Woman. New York: Franklin Watts.
Rosengarten, William (1924). Choosing Your Life Work. New York: McGraw Hill [2nd ed.)
Ryan, Leonard James and Bernard Ryan, (1963). So You Want to Go Into Journalism. New York: Harper & Row.
Schudson, Michael (1978). Discovering the News. New York: Basic Books.
Seitz, Don C. (1916). Training for the Newspaper Trade. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott.
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Shuler, Marjorie, Ruth Adams Knight and Muriel Fuller (1941). Lady Editor. Careers for Women in Publishing. New York: E.P. Dutton.
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Stein, M. L. (1965, 1978). Your Career in Journalism. New York: Julian Messner.
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Steiner is assistant professor of journalism at Rutgers University.…
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Publication information: Article title: Career Guidance Books Assess the Value of Journalism Education. Contributors: Steiner, Linda - Author. Journal title: The Journalism Educator. Volume: 49. Issue: 1 Publication date: Spring 1994. Page number: 49. © Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication Winter 2008. Provided by ProQuest LLC. All Rights Reserved.
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